Fonctionnement de peuplements en semis direct associant du blé tendre d'hiver (Triticum aestivum L.) à différentes plantes de couverture en climat tempéré

Abstract : Innovative crop management systems have to be proposed to achieve objectives of modern agriculture such as productivity, respect of the environment, and profitability. No-till crop management systems with a living cover crop are of primary interest since they can reach these objectives. If these crop management systems really present some advantages in tropical climate, they are almost unexplored in temperate climate. This work proposes to increase scientific knowledge about these particular crop management systems in order to facilitate their conception and evaluation in temperate climate.
The study was based on field experiments carried out during three cash crop growing seasons in Grignon (Yvelines, France) since 2002. Treatments involved a winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) crop grown (i) on its own on a conventional-till soil, (ii) on its own on a no-till soil, and (iii) on a no-till soil with six different living cover crops. By associating an analytic approach to a systemic one, global aim of this work was to comprehend, according to the cover crop species, (i) the effects of the different no-till/living cover crop management systems on cash crop yield while underlying sensitivity periods to stresses for this crop, (ii) competition or facilitation for light and nitrogen between intercropped species, and (iii) short-term changes in soil structure as well as hydraulic properties.
This study showed that living cover crops may reduce, sometimes importantly, wheat grain yield, depending mainly on the cover crop species, their management practices, and the climatic conditions; wheat sensitivity periods to stresses depended also on these three factors. Furthermore, the study highlighted that competition for light between intercropped species was the most detrimental process to wheat grain yield. On a short-term basis, soil structure little changed from a no-till soil without a living cover crop to a no-till soil with a living cover crop. Nevertheless, the study showed that hydraulic properties may change according to the absence or the presence of a living cover crop on a no-till soil without revealing important variations of these soil hydraulic properties from one living cover crop species to another.
The work increased scientific and technical knowledge on the functioning of no-till/living cover crop management systems in temperate climate. It showed feasibility as well as risks of these crop management systems; it allowed us to identify new research axis to increase knowledge and to provide some references in order to reduce these risks.
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domain_other. INAPG (AgroParisTech), 2006. Français. 〈NNT : 2006INAP0016〉
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Matthieu Carof. Fonctionnement de peuplements en semis direct associant du blé tendre d'hiver (Triticum aestivum L.) à différentes plantes de couverture en climat tempéré. domain_other. INAPG (AgroParisTech), 2006. Français. 〈NNT : 2006INAP0016〉. 〈tel-00338817〉

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