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Analyse de la composition isotopique de l'ion nitrate dans la basse atmosphère polaire et marine

Abstract : Atmospheric nitrogen oxides (NOx=NO+NO2) are central to the chemistry of the environment, as they play a pivotal role in the cycling of reactive nitrogen and the oxidative capacity of the atmosphere. The stable isotopes of atmospheric nitrate (in the form of particulate NO?3 or gaseous HNO3), their main ultimate sinks, provide insights in chemical budget of NOx : its nitrogen isotopes are almost conservative tracers of their sources, whereas NOx sinks are revealed by its triple oxygen isotopic composition. The long-awaited challenge of measuring all three stable isotope ratios of nitrate (17O/16O, 18O/16O and 15N/14N) in a single sample at sub-micromolar levels has been resolved. The newly developed method makes use of denitrifying bacteria to quantitatively convert nitrate to a stable species (N2O), whose isotope ratios are measured using an automated gas chromatography/isotope ratio mass spectrometry analytical system. Dual measurements of d15N and the isotope anomaly (?17O=d17O-0.52×d18O) of atmospheric nitrate samples collected in the Arctic, the Antarctic and in the marine boundary layer of the Atlantic Ocean, have been used to derive the chemical budget of NOx and atmospheric nitrate in these remote regions. Main results from oxygen isotope measurements pertain to the identification of seasonal and latitudinal shifts in NOx oxidative pathways in these environments (including the role of halogen oxides chemistry in polar regions during springtime), as a function of particle sizes. Nitrogen isotopes are found to provide strong constraints on the budget of reactive nitrogen in polar regions, due to the strong fractionation associated with snowpack photochemical loss of nitrate and its conversion to NOx
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Samuel Morin. Analyse de la composition isotopique de l'ion nitrate dans la basse atmosphère polaire et marine. Sciences de la Terre. Université Paris-Est, 2008. Français. ⟨NNT : 2008PEST0249⟩. ⟨tel-00326229v2⟩

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