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Theses

La démonstration dialectique.
Le problème de la justification des propositions dans un contexte de finitude cognitive, sa résolution et ses conséquences.

Abstract : How to justify a proposition in absence of all absolute proof ? How to proclaim the proposition's validity in a context of cognitive finitude ?
After having defined the notions of validity and finitude, this thesis offers the following solution.
Firstly, instead of requiring absolute validity, we can more modestly proclaim that the position proposed is better than other existing rival positions, thus avoiding all absolutist ambition without falling into relativism.
Yet, how can we declare that one theory is better than another ? I suggest the following “preference criterion” : a position B is better than a position A if at least one problem encountered by A is resolved by B, and if no problem encountered by B can be resolved by A.
When several rival positions are examined using this criterion, argumentation takes the form of a learning process. Owing to these similarities with Aristotelian dialectic, this procedure is called “dialectical demonstration”.
The methodology presupposed by the dialectical demonstration, notably rules for recension and understanding rival theories, are next examined. Lastly we study the consequences of dialectical demonstration on classical epistemological concepts such as the truth, knowledge and rationality.
Given that dialectic demonstration is a fundamental procedure for establishing proof, it must be well founded by itself. This is the reason why every step of this thesis' argumentation is justified via confrontation with competing positions, particularly those of Aristotle, Habermas and Popper.
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Submitted on : Monday, September 13, 2010 - 2:44:56 PM
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Sylvain Panis. La démonstration dialectique.
Le problème de la justification des propositions dans un contexte de finitude cognitive, sa résolution et ses conséquences.. Philosophie. Université Panthéon-Sorbonne - Paris I, 2007. Français. ⟨tel-00320426v2⟩

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