Aux sources d'Internet : l'émergence d'ARPANET.

Exploration du processus d'émergence d'une infrastructure informationnelle. Description des trajectoires des acteurs et actants, des filières et des réseaux constitutifs de la naissance d'ARPANET. Problèmes critiques et épistémologiques posés par l'histoire des innovations.

Abstract : Drawing upon cybernetics, hypertext, interactive computing, packet switching, computing resources sharing and Cold War ideology, the emergence of the ARPANET network at the end of the sixties was the product of almost fifteen years of innovation, mobilizing numerous participants, members of the American " military-scientific-industrial " complex. After a critical study of the Internet historiography — especially the narrative of the supposed military origins of ARPANET, the thesis emphasizes the heterogeneity and uncertainty which constitute the innovation processes, as well as the multiple temporalities at work in the emergence of this information infrastructure.
Based on an empiricist position, inspired by an anthropological approach towards the sciences and techniques which postulate the nesting of social and technological aspects, this thesis is built on three main points :
- the exploration of the emergence of ARPANET, its many components and the associated socio-technical networks. An important place is given to the birth of the interactive computing at the end of the fifties, symbolized by time-sharing computers, which foreshadow the network computer ;
- the critical use of the translation model and its limits in studying the innovation processes ;
- reflections on the history of information tools, linked to writing " processual " history.

The description of the emergence of the first computer network reveals implicit questions of how to conceptualize innovation, and of determinism in particular.
Document type :
Theses
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https://tel.archives-ouvertes.fr/tel-00312005
Contributor : Alexandre Serres <>
Submitted on : Sunday, August 24, 2008 - 4:03:37 PM
Last modification on : Wednesday, October 31, 2018 - 12:17:32 PM
Long-term archiving on : Thursday, June 3, 2010 - 6:47:36 PM

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  • HAL Id : tel-00312005, version 1

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Alexandre Serres. Aux sources d'Internet : l'émergence d'ARPANET.

Exploration du processus d'émergence d'une infrastructure informationnelle. Description des trajectoires des acteurs et actants, des filières et des réseaux constitutifs de la naissance d'ARPANET. Problèmes critiques et épistémologiques posés par l'histoire des innovations.. Sciences de l'Homme et Société. Université Rennes 2, 2000. Français. ⟨tel-00312005⟩

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