Abstract : Security and order are the foundation of the Cameroonian political order. The emergence, the “establisment” and the “restoration” of order are the quintessential missions of the State. Consequently, the aim of this thesis is to understand how these two concepts built the Cameroonian State and how their breakdown have simultaneously deconstructed and constructed this State. From these perspective, the production of security and order, and through them of the State, can be divided into three stages.
Firstly, it is formed from the collision and collusion between endogenous and exogenous factors. On the one hand, colonial history (followed by the colonial pact) structured the constitution. From this point of view, the military cooperation between France and Cameroon (through cognitive structures in terms of doctrine and military training, the French security system) is the backbone of defence and security of that country. On the other hand, the security of Cameroon is constructed due to international parameters: "war against terrorism", strategic and geostrategic stakes of powers at work in the Guinea Gulf and the Congo Basin, and the national and domestic security of these powers. Finally, on the regional scale, the wars in progress in Central Africa have a fundamental impact on the way in which methods of security actions are undertaken in the Cameroon: the formulation and formalization of the Cameroonian foreign policy and military thinking are permeated by the "conflictual pattern" that models Central Africa.
Secondly, building mechanisms from "within" have sought to translate the fact that security is both constructed by endogenous and “endogenized” factors, (in other words, translated and adapted to fit to local issues). The creation of security and order is a process in which security and political forces, in their interaction and their deployment, and the ensuing public policies reveal an historical constancy of strength; domination and antagonism with as the ultimate purpose, to perpetuate an authoritarian system; to maintain, increase and perpetuate the power of the rulers.
Thirdly, action in favour of public security one allows to identify a vast number of actors – from the private Cameroonian sector, from the social and state sectors, and from aboard – who are involved in the security “market”. The action of these actors creates a system of “sharing”, of “straddling” and of privatization of security. Within this framework, it is not possible to conclude that the Cameroonian State is unable to carry out its ontological and stately duty of security. On the contrary: the thesis reveals a kind of new management, a reorganization of the State, a new “governance”.