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Modélisation de l'incinération sur grille d'ordures ménagères et approche thermodynamique du comportement des métaux lourds

Abstract : The present dissertation describes experimental and theoretical investigations undertaken for the mathematical modelling of municipal solid waste (MSW) incineration in a grate furnace and the thermodynamic study of the speciation of heavy metals (HM), originally contained into MSW, during combustion. Thermogravimetric and gaseous analysis (mass spectrometry and gas chromatography) experiments were performed on MSW samples to get pyrolysis kinetics and to quantify the gaseous species that evolve during the primary reactions of devolatilisation. Other experiments were carried out in a fixed bed pilote scale reactor: the combustion of two types of solids (wood chips and MSW) was studied, and the influence of operating conditions (flow rate, staging and temperature of the primary air) as well as fuel characteristics (moisture content, inert material fraction, lower calorific value) was investigated. A mathematical model was developed for simulating the combustion of a solid fuel, either in a fixed bed reactor or on the grate of an incineration plant. It has been validated by comparison of the calculated results and the experiments carried out on the pilot. Thanks to this model, we have been able to localize the different processes taking place in the fuel bed and to evaluate the influence of the operating conditions on the combustion efficiency. Numerical simulations of the gas flow and combustion in the post-combustion chamber and the heater of an incineration plant were performed using the CFD code FLUENT. The local thermal conditions as well as local gaseous species concentrations obtained from these simulations were eventually used to carry out thermodynamic calculations of the speciation of HM during incineration.
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Y. Menard. Modélisation de l'incinération sur grille d'ordures ménagères et approche thermodynamique du comportement des métaux lourds. Sciences de l'ingénieur [physics]. Institut National Polytechnique de Lorraine - INPL, 2003. Français. ⟨tel-00298415⟩

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