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Etalonnage d'un nouveau type de détecteur bolométrique pour l'instrument PACS de l'Observatoire Spatial Herschel

Abstract : The Herschel mission is a major project at the core of the European Space Agency (ESA) scientific program. The space telescope will perform observations of the Universe in the far-infrared regime of the electromagnetic spectrum, which still remains little-known today. With its spatial resolution, sensitivity and spectral range (60 to 670 µm) Herschel will provide astronomers with unique opportunities to decipher many aspects of star formation mecanisms and galaxy evolution. Various fields in astrophysics such as active galatic nuclei, circumstellar disks or solar system objects will also benefit from Herschel observations.
Among the many research institutes involved in the development and exploitation of this challenging observatory, the CEA designed a novel type of bolometric detectors to equip the photometer of the PACS instrument on-board the Herschel satellite.
In this thesis, I will report on the work I produced during my doctorate at the Service d'Astrophysique du CEA. My task was twofold, I developed a characterisation procedure that takes advantage of unique features of CEA filled bolometer arrays and I applied it to calibrate the PACS photometer and optimize its performances in the various observing modes open to the scientific community.
In this manuscript, I will present the basics of infrared astronomy from its very beginning in 1800 to the European Space Agency's Herschel Space Observatory. I will then describe past and present developments in cryogenic bolometers, emphasising new concepts introduced by CEA, that is to say the collective manufacturing of bolometer arrays, the high impedance thermometers, the cold multiplexing and the use of a resonant cavity to optimize absorption of electromagnetic radiation. I will follow with an explanation of the working principles of CEA bolometer arrays, a prerequisite to grasp the strategy of the characterisation procedure that we developed. I will then expose and analyse thoroughly the results that we obtained during the calibration campaign of the PACS photometer. Finally, I will express detector performances in terms of "observational" performances that future PACS users can comprehend.
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Submitted on : Monday, June 30, 2008 - 12:09:18 PM
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Nicolas Billot. Etalonnage d'un nouveau type de détecteur bolométrique pour l'instrument PACS de l'Observatoire Spatial Herschel. Astrophysique [astro-ph]. Université Paris Sud - Paris XI, 2007. Français. ⟨tel-00292030⟩

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