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Mode de genèse et valorisation des minerais de type black shales : cas du Kupferschiefer (Pologne) et des schistes noirs de Talvivaara (Finlande)

Abstract : This thesis was carried out in the frame of an EU-FP6 project (Bioshale) and has, as main objective a better understanding of metal concentration processes in black shale ores and their beneficiation by hydro-and biotechnologies. The low mature organic matter (OM) of the Lubin ore (Kupferschiefer) played a role during syn-, dia- and epigenetic metal enrichment processes. The ore contains 7% of Cu as well as Ag, Co, Ni, Pb, Zn, as sulphides (chalcocite, covellite, bornite, chalcopyrite...). The concentration of some elements (Cu-Fe-Co-Ni-V) is low into the OM (=0.2%). The more mature OM from Polkowice (Kupferschiefer) contains less associated elements (Fe- V-S). Base metal contents are lower (<1% Cu) than in Lubin ore, but with gold and selenium as electrum and clausthalite. At Talvivaara, the low grade graphitic ore (Zn+Cu+Ni<1%) is dominated by pyrrhotite-pyrite (± chalcopyrite, alabandite, pentlandite, sphalerite). Tectonic and metamorphic processes erased most of relationships between mineralisation processes and OM (which does not contain any metal). The treatments of the Lubin and Talvivaara ores contribute to a better metal solubilisation in batch (>90%) than during heap leaching (<75% for Talvivaara ore). The recovery of Cu-Ag-Pb is penalised by the precipitation of secondary covellite, acanthite and sulphate, but is improved by additional brine leaching. The efficiency is related to the operating system and conditions (heap vs. stirred tank bioleaching) not to the presence and characteristics of OM. Whatever the operating system chosen, it was observed that sulphides as chalcocite, digenite, bornite or pyrrhotite are more easily leachable than pyrite and chalcopyrite.
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Jérôme Gouin. Mode de genèse et valorisation des minerais de type black shales : cas du Kupferschiefer (Pologne) et des schistes noirs de Talvivaara (Finlande). Minéralogie. Université d'Orléans, 2008. Français. ⟨tel-00287368⟩

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