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Fonctionnement et modélisation hydrologique d'un petit bassin versant cultivé en milieu volcanique tropical

Abstract : The management and protection of water resources require a good knowledge of hydrological processes at the catchment scale. This issue is crucial in the Antilles where agricultural practices have caused water and soil resources chronic pollutions.
This thesis aims to characterize the hydrological behaviour of a small catchment situated in a volcanic tropical region mainly planted with banana. The study site is the Féfé catchment (17.8 ha), located on the Basse-Terre island in Guadeloupe (FWI), which has been monitored between 2003 and 2006. Two complementary approaches were used.
First of all, the experimental approach, combining geology, hydrology, hydrogeology and pesticide tracer, was used to characterize the structure, the water balance and the hydrological processes of a small catchment. A global behaviour scheme has been established, and the main characteristics are: high water fluxes (annual rainfall > 4 000 mm), an important recharge of groundwater (60% of the annual effective rainfall), and a predominance of Hortonian overland flow. A lumped model based on this scheme allowed to correctly simulate surface and groundwater flows. These studies have led to identify the main mechanisms of contamination of soils and waters by a nematicide used in banana plantations (cadusafos).
Then, the modelling approach using the distributed model MHYDAS highlighted the impact of land use and ditch network on flood generation. This approach has taken into account the specificities of the cultivated tropical environment that is the rainfall partitioning by vegetation (stemflow of banana plant) and aquifer/ditch exchanges. The application of the model at the three scales of the plot, the sub-catchment and the catchment, has led to better characterize the spatial and temporal variability of hydrological processes.
Both approaches are an appropriate way to measure the environmental impact of pesticide applications on the field, to characterize up-scaling, and to test the impact of land use.
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https://tel.archives-ouvertes.fr/tel-00279097
Contributor : Jean-Baptiste Charlier <>
Submitted on : Wednesday, May 14, 2008 - 4:36:15 PM
Last modification on : Wednesday, November 11, 2020 - 7:42:03 PM
Long-term archiving on: : Friday, November 25, 2016 - 10:14:42 PM

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  • HAL Id : tel-00279097, version 1
  • PRODINRA : 250752

Citation

Jean-Baptiste Charlier. Fonctionnement et modélisation hydrologique d'un petit bassin versant cultivé en milieu volcanique tropical. Hydrologie. Université Montpellier II - Sciences et Techniques du Languedoc, 2007. Français. ⟨tel-00279097⟩

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