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Des microquasars aux systèmes binaires enfouis: enquête dans l'Univers des astres extrêmes...

Abstract : Introduction:
In this introduction chapter I describe the general characteristics, the formation and evolution of different types of high energy binary systems, and also the general context inside which resides my research. I finish by the important current questions, and by describing the originality of my research activities.

Microquasars:
I present an overview of past, present and future research on microquasars and jets, showing that microquasars, i.e. galactic jet sources, are among the best laboratories for high energy phenomena and astroparticle physics. After reminding the analogy with quasars, I focus on one of the best microquasar representatives, probably the archetype, namely GRS 1915+105, and present accretion and ejection phenomena, showing that only a multi-wavelength approach allows a better understanding of phenomena occurring in these sources. Thereafter, I review jets at different scales: compact jets, large-scale jets, and the interactions between ejection and the surrounding medium. I finish this review by showing that microquasars are good candidates to be emitters of astroparticles: very high energy photons, cosmic rays and neutrinos.

INTEGRAL sources:
A new type of X-ray sources has been discovered by INTEGRAL, and their nature is revealed by means of multi-wavelength observations. Among these high-energy binary sources, two distinct classes are appearing. The first class is constituted of intrinsically obscured high-energy sources, of which IGR J16318-4848 seems to be an extreme representant. The second class is populated by the so-called supergiant fast X-ray transients, with IGR J17544-2619 being the archetype. I first report here on X-ray observations allowing an accurate localization of INTEGRAL sources, before describing a multi-wavelength study, from optical to mid-infrared wavelengths, of a sample of 20 INTEGRAL sources, including IGR J16318-4848 and IGR J17544-2619. This study first consists in an accurate astrometry, a photometry and a spectroscopy of these objects in optical and NIR, showing the predominance of high mass X-ray binary systems, hosting supergiant stars. Then, I show that in the case of the obscured sources IGR J16318-4848, IGR J16195-4945 and IGR J16358-4726, these observations suggest the presence of absorbing material (dust and/or cold gas) enshrouding the whole binary system. This chapter ends with a discussion about the nature of INTEGRAL sources in general, and the distinction between obscured sources and SFXTs.

Conclusion:
What has been accomplished in the understanding of high energy binary systems, what remains to be done in this field, and the important questions which need to be resolved, and which will occupy my time during the next years... This chapter is divided in three parts. In the first one, I describe questions related to the population of Galactic sources, taken as a whole, and how they can allow to better understand high energy binary systems. In the second one, I focus on the study of the formation and evolution of high energy binary systems as an object, and on phenomena occuring in these systems. In the third one, I give details on a project that I am very interested in, and which takes roots in the two previous ones: the distinction between progenitors of neutron stars and black holes.
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https://tel.archives-ouvertes.fr/tel-00274649
Contributor : Sylvain Chaty <>
Submitted on : Sunday, April 20, 2008 - 10:34:41 PM
Last modification on : Friday, April 10, 2020 - 5:27:32 PM
Long-term archiving on: : Thursday, May 20, 2010 - 11:30:16 PM

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  • HAL Id : tel-00274649, version 1

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Sylvain Chaty. Des microquasars aux systèmes binaires enfouis: enquête dans l'Univers des astres extrêmes.... Cosmologie et astrophysique extra-galactique [astro-ph.CO]. Université Paris-Diderot - Paris VII, 2007. ⟨tel-00274649⟩

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