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Theses

Développement d'une méthodologie de conception de bâtiments à basse consommation d'énergie

Abstract : The building sector represents the most energy consuming sector in France with 43% of final energy consumption and 25% of greenhouse gases emission. Thus, efforts should be taken to promote new buildings construction and existent buildings thermal renovation satisfying low energy building criterions.

The main target of this work is to set up a methodology to carry out parametrical studies during the design process of a low energy building. The methodology consists of using numerical simulation tools and the design of experiments method (DOE) to develop polynomial models to evaluate the energy efficiency and summer thermal comfort of buildings. The polynomial models simplify parametrical studies by replacing numerical simulation tools to find out solutions to get to low energy buildings. The methodology is used to improve the energy efficiency of a small typical French office building, called Beethoven, to achieve a low energy building suitable for the French climate condition.

The first chapter presents the state of art of low energy buildings. The state of art work deals with low energy buildings labels and projects realization, as well as HVAC systems and building envelope concepts.

The second chapter treats with numerical models development in the MATLAB/SIMULINK environment and its integration in the SIMBAD models library. These models are useful to set up the methodology. A few studies carried out using the developed models to evaluate low energy buildings and HVAC systems performance, are also presented.

The third chapter deals with the presentation of the office building characteristics and the underlying principles of the design of experiments method. The thermal characteristics of the office building are chosen according to the French thermal regulation guidelines. These characteristics are considered as a reference configuration to evaluate the energy efficiency improvements of the low energy office building. The energy efficiency of the office building for the reference configuration is evaluated with respect to the eight climate contexts defined by the French thermal regulation. This ables us to retain only three representative climates to achieve this work. An application example of the design of experiments method is performed in order to validate the choice of this method for the design methodology.

The fourth chapter deals with the development of polynomial models. The potential and limits of the design of experiments method is evaluated to model the building energy efficiency and thermal comfort via polynomial models. This leads us to define an application strategy of the design of experiments method in the frame work of low energy building numerical design studies. Then, the polynomial models are used to perform a sensitivity analysis for energy efficiency of the office building as well as solutions analysis for building envelope and HVAC systems in order to get to a low energy building with respect to the three climates.

In the last chapter, the polynomial models are used to identify solutions for the office building envelope and HVAC systems characteristics in order to get to a low energy building with respect to the guidelines of the French label Effinergie and the German label Passivhaus. The low energy configurations are compared to the reference configuration in terms of energy consumption, summer thermal comfort and CO2 gases emission.

The developed methodology simplifies the parametric study to find out solutions to improve the energy efficiency of buildings, by performing graphical diagrams for solutions selection. It ables to study a large number of solutions, which could reach millions depending on the number of parameters. The methodology results show satisfying agreements with the numerical simulation results. Thus it could be used to develop design tools for low energy buildings construction and existent buildings thermal renovation.
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Submitted on : Thursday, April 10, 2008 - 1:33:02 PM
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Fadi Chlela. Développement d'une méthodologie de conception de bâtiments à basse consommation d'énergie. Energie électrique. Université de La Rochelle, 2008. Français. ⟨tel-00271813⟩

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