Abstract : The present dissertation consists of a series of studies on the relationshipbetween natural science and politics. Racism and sexism are touched upon only in brief, sincethe study seeks to avoid indignation as a criterion of relevance. It purposes rather to describehow natural science functioned as a normal measure of cognition and morality. This was nota peripheral phenomenon, but an integral part of an everyday way of thinking.On the basis of the history of concepts (Begriffsgeschichte) and the study ofmetaphors, the dissertation deals first with the development of natural science in theNineteenth Century seen in relation to theology and the concept of the “Death of God.” Itthen turns to the relationship between natural science and politics, where it is shown howclosely the two are interlaced. Five separate studies demonstrate various aspects of theirinterdependence.