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Détermination expérimentale des caractéristiques physiques et chimiques de particules de suie émises par des turboréacteurs d'avion

Abstract : Biomass burning and fossil fuel combustion represent significant sources of particles in the atmosphere. Soot particles emitted by aircraft engines in the troposphere and lower stratosphere are also of importance since they have an impact on the global radiative forcing in regard with condensation trails (contrails) that can evolve into cirrus clouds. Moreover, it has already been established that these particles have an impact on the air quality, and their sub-micrometer size is now a matter of questions regarding their effect on human health.
This study is devoted to determine the physico-chemical properties of soot particles emitted by commercial aircraft engines, through various experiments. Soot samples are
collected behind CFM56-5C and CFM56-5B aircraft engines, in a test bench that belongs to the SNECMA company (SAFRAN group). These engines are usually used to respectively power long- and medium- hauls.
Various experimental techniques such as transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray energy dispersive spectroscopy (XREDS), and
Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) are used to study the soot primary particles morphology, structure, size distribution, elemental chemical composition, and to determine the surface functional groups. Fractal dimension (Df ) and gyration diameters ( d g ) of soot
aggregates are also determined.
Our experimental data show that:
- soot aggregates emitted by both engine have similar values of the fractal dimension
- soot primary particles and aggregates always exhibit log-normal size distributions and have similar elemental chemical composition and functional groups
- aggregates have different gyration diameters according to the engine used
We also point out that the sample preparation, which is a prerequisite for SEM studies, has a strong influence on the geometric mean value of the primary particles size distribution determined from micrographs analyses. Consequently, we claim that TEM is more suitable
than SEM to characterize the size distribution of soot primary particles emitted by engines.
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Submitted on : Monday, March 10, 2008 - 3:36:15 PM
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David Delhaye. Détermination expérimentale des caractéristiques physiques et chimiques de particules de suie émises par des turboréacteurs d'avion. Physique [physics]. Université de la Méditerranée - Aix-Marseille II, 2007. Français. ⟨tel-00261972⟩

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