DIVERSITE GENETIQUE ET PHENOLOGIE DE CYPERUS ESCULENTUS L. (CYPERACEAE) POUR UNE GESTION INTEGREE DE L'ESPECE DANS LES CULTURES DE HAUTE LANDE

Abstract : We studied the development, phenology, demography and genetic diversity of Cyperus esculentus (Cyperaceae), an invasive clonal perennial weed in the small-statured crops of Haute Lande, southwestern France. The goal was to understand its colonizing capacity and then make propositions for an integrated management of the species.
The colonizing capacity of C. esculentus is linked to the huge subterranean vegetative development, with both foraging thanks to rhizomes and multiplication thanks to tubers. On the other hand, the local crop systems provide all the needs of the species: water, light and nutriments without competition by other weeds. Genetic analyses showed a low genetic diversity and a regional pattern of variation of the sampled populations. These results suggest that the local populations might originate from multiple introductions of a single origin, and a local vegetative propagation by harvesting engines. Consequently, we can expect a homogeneous response of the species to the considered management techniques. The identified modes of spread display the need for a better prophylaxis. The phenological and demographical analyses carried out with or without vegetal cover and for different emergence dates showed the sensitivity of the species to the competition, especially for light, and to a delayed emergence. The tuber production was very reduced compared with the spring germination in open environment. However, partly because of changing in allocation patterns when emergence was delayed, tuberization was never stopped and was sufficient to maintain and even increase the infestation.
All the knowledge acquired by this work let us (1) to propose a development indicator so that interventions take place before tuberization and (2) to model the development cycle of C. esculentus in order to evaluate the impacts of the considered technical itineraries for a better control of the species.
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Marine Dodet. DIVERSITE GENETIQUE ET PHENOLOGIE DE CYPERUS ESCULENTUS L. (CYPERACEAE) POUR UNE GESTION INTEGREE DE L'ESPECE DANS LES CULTURES DE HAUTE LANDE. Ecologie, Environnement. Université de Bourgogne, 2006. Français. ⟨tel-00261512⟩

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