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Theses

Tourisme, croissance et intégration dans l'économie mondiale : les apports du concept de développement durable

Abstract : For two decades, tourism has continued as a major activity in the world trade. Many parameters reveal the importance of it: tourist flows would currently account for 11% of the world GDP, with growth rates particularly high in the transition and developing countries.
The importance of tourism as a creative industry of employment, currencies and growth in the developing countries was recently recognized. Nevertheless, in spite of its stimulative repercussions on the economic growth, the experiment, corroborated by many theoretical and empirical works, shows that tourist specialization can not avoid the risks and perverse effects.
Admittedly, tourism exerts effects positively on the balance of payments, employment and the production, at least at the macroeconomk level. In addition, it can effect heavily negative on the environment and compromise the prospects for a durable development. Moreover, tourist specialization can often block the regional development, while leading to processes of disindustrialization and retreat of the productive activities. In several countries, the ambiguous or dubious repercussions of the tourist growth were often observed: 1) monopolistic prevalence of the tour operators who sell stereotyped images, through homogeneous products and without diversification of the offer; 2) a geographically concentrated tourist growth, strongly consuming resources and destroying of the ecosystems; 3) the process of social exclusion will effect on local populations, which often marginalized or confined in activities with low wages. Our research uses various conceptual instruments, mainly borrowed from the international economy and econometrics. The results of our work are articulated around two axes constitutive of two distinct parts :
1) Determinants and impacts of international tourism on the growth.
In this first part, on the basis of study empirico-statistics mainly in terms of data of panel, we evaluate the significance of tourist specialization by reference in particular to the concept of comparative advantage. We present two series of work which are supply side and demand side, while referring to us by using the substrates of the theories of the international trade, in the context of the increase of the economic services. Respectly. our research gives a priority attention to the Southeast Asia tourism.
2) Growth, exploitation of the resources and durable development.
Tourism is often considered as an efficient factor of local development, because it exerts linkage and multiplication effects. However, this optimistic point of view must be moderate, it also creates the existence of many leakage effects to the detriment of productive fabrics and of repercussions on the environment. According to this research, by borrowing the concept marshallien of "industrial district" and on the basis of modeling in terms of general balance, we would like to show that tourist specialization can generate, at least at the local level such as the situations of" immiserizing growth", with an aggravation of the structural underemployment, a drop of the productions and an exhaustion of the natural resources. In conclusion, our research without disputing the socio-economic utility of tourism leads us to formulate moderate diagnoses and forecast the prudence on a phenomenon whose importance will still continue more in the developing and transition countries during next decades.
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Submitted on : Monday, February 18, 2008 - 5:53:21 PM
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Manhchien Vu. Tourisme, croissance et intégration dans l'économie mondiale : les apports du concept de développement durable. Economies et finances. Université du Sud Toulon Var, 2007. Français. ⟨tel-00257238⟩

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