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Evaluation expérimentale d'éléments de calcul quantique (qubit) formés d'électrons piégés sur l'hélium liquide

Abstract : An electron on helium presents a quantized energy spectrum. The interaction with the environment is considered sufficiently weak in order to allow the realization of a quantum bit (qubit) by using the first two energy levels.
The first stage in the realization of this qubit was to trap and control a single electron. This is carried out thanks to a set of micro-fabricated electrodes defining a well of potential in which the electron is trapped.
We are able with such a sample to trap and detect a variables number of electrons varying between one and around twenty. This then allowed us to study the static behaviour of a small number of electrons in a trap. They are supposed to crystallize and form structures called Wigner molecules. Such molecules have not yet been observed yet with electrons above helium. Our results bring circumstantial evidence for of Wigner crystallization. We then sought to characterize the qubit more precisely. We sought to carry out a projective reading (depending on the state of the qubit) and a measurement of the relaxation time. The results were obtained by exciting the electron with an incoherent electric field. A clean measurement of the relaxation time would require a coherent electric field. The conclusion cannot thus be final but it would seem that the relaxation time is shorter than calculated theoretically. That is perhaps due to a measurement of the relaxation between the oscillating states in the trap and not between the states of the qubit.
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Submitted on : Monday, February 11, 2008 - 6:43:44 PM
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  • HAL Id : tel-00250371, version 1

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Emmanuel Rousseau. Evaluation expérimentale d'éléments de calcul quantique (qubit) formés d'électrons piégés sur l'hélium liquide. Matière Condensée [cond-mat]. Université Paris Sud - Paris XI, 2006. Français. ⟨tel-00250371⟩

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