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Méthodes bayesiennes pour l'estimation de l'histoire démographique et de la pression de sélection à partir de la structure génétique des populations.

Abstract : Recent advances in the fields of computational biology and molecular biology techniques have led to the emerging discipline of population genomics, whose main objective is the study of the spatial structure of genetic diversity. This structure is determined by both neutral forces, like migration and drift, and adaptive forces, like natural selection, and has important applications in many fields like medical genetics or conservation biology. Here, we develop new statistical methods to evaluate the role of natural selection and environment in this spatial structure. All these methods are based on the Bayesian Dirichlet-multinomial model of genetic differentiation. First, we propose to include environmental variables in the estimation process, in order to identify the biotic and abiotic factors that determine the genetic structure. Then, we study the possibility of extending the Dirichlet-multinomial model to dominant markers, which have become very popular in the last few years, but which are affected by various ascertainment biases. Finally, we try to separate neutral effects from adaptive effects on the genetic structure, in order to identify regions of the genome influenced by natural selection. Three databases have been analyzed as illustrations of the use of these new methods: human data, data of argan tree in Morocco, and data of periwinkle. Finally, we developed three softwares implementing these various models
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Submitted on : Thursday, January 24, 2008 - 5:20:18 PM
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Matthieu Foll. Méthodes bayesiennes pour l'estimation de l'histoire démographique et de la pression de sélection à partir de la structure génétique des populations.. Ecologie, Environnement. Université Joseph-Fourier - Grenoble I, 2007. Français. ⟨tel-00216192⟩

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