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Contribution à la modélisation tridimensionnelle des interactions champ électromagnétique – corps humain en basses fréquences

Abstract : The human body is more and more exposed to the “electrosmog”, due to increasing usage of electricity. Although the consequence of such a pollution on the human health have not been clearly established, European standards define some maximum values for the magnetic field H, the electrical field E, and the resulting induced current density J, which have not to be exceeded in the human body. Besides, the transport of electrical energy is focusing the concerns since a long time, due to the very high levels of all the electrical quantities. As invasive measurements of electromagnetic fields and current density in the body are vary difficult, this PhD thesis is devoted to 3D Finite Element modelling of induced phenomena in the human body at power frequencies (50 or 60 Hz).
The bibliography presents the state of the art on short-time and long time effects of electromagnetic fields on the human health, experimental and numerical methods used in dosimetry of electromagnetic phenomena, and on the macroscopic electrical quantities (conductivity and permittivity) of the organs.
Starting from Maxwell equations, the two “classical” formulation (dielectric, and ф-A) are implemented, so as to simulate separately the effects of E and H fields on simple geometries. The results put in evidence some constraints, concerning the exposure conditions, the presence of the soil and electrical properties of the human body.
Then, a unified formulation has been developed from the work of A. Bossavit, and allows taking into account the simultaneous exposure to the E and H fields. The modelling associated with this formulation requires three steps, each of one having its own domain of resolution (the space out of the body, the only body), interface conditions and boundary conditions. Several simulations with an anatomical model of the body illustrate the independent and simultaneous effects of the two fields E and H on the distribution of induced currents.
Comparisons with results obtained by researchers of other groups by using other numerical methods and models of the human body, take to this work a kind of validation (at present time no experimental validation is available). Finally, this modelling has been used to illustrate the case of workers operating with electrical power lines.
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  • HAL Id : tel-00203230, version 1

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Le Ha Hoang. Contribution à la modélisation tridimensionnelle des interactions champ électromagnétique – corps humain en basses fréquences. Energie électrique. Ecole Centrale de Lyon, 2007. Français. ⟨tel-00203230⟩

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