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APPROCHE THEORIQUE ET EXPERIMENTALE DE LA FILTRATION TANGENTIELLE DE COLLOÏDES : FLUX CRITIQUE ET COLMATAGE

Abstract : Though the problems raised by membrane fouling are old, prediction of fouling and the adaptation of filtration conditions to reduce fouling remain essential for a better control of the process. Because it represents the flux beyond which irreversible fouling appears on the membrane surface, the critical flux can be a key parameter in this control. In this study, we try to relate the osmotic pressure of a colloidal suspension to the experimental values of critical flux by modelling the process of tangential filtration. A filtration procedure was developed to determine critical flux in a precise and rigorous way. This method allows the reversibility of particle accumulation to be determined continuously by observing flux behaviour when pressure is suddenly reduced. This makes it possible in experiments to discriminate between the part of the flux reduction due to the osmotic pressure and that due to irreversible resistance. Characterization of the suspension at the microscopic level (zeta potential, size, ...) was supplemented by a more original, macroscopic measurement of particulate osmotic pressure by chemical compression. The osmotic pressure of the colloidal dispersion proves to be a parameter relevant to filtration because it is related to the way the particles resist being concentrated. A suitable two-dimensional model that calculates particle concentration profiles in a membrane separation process is used for theoretical confrontation of the experimental measurements of the osmotic pressure with the experimental values of the critical flux. Comparison of the experimental and calculated values of critical flux suggests that heterogeneities in the physical properties of both the membrane and the particles must be taken into account. Integration of the flow pattern into a descriptive model could make it possible to explain the differences between experiment and simulation of the filtration of colloidal suspensions.
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Benjamin Espinasse. APPROCHE THEORIQUE ET EXPERIMENTALE DE LA FILTRATION TANGENTIELLE DE COLLOÏDES : FLUX CRITIQUE ET COLMATAGE. Génie des procédés. Université Paul Sabatier - Toulouse III, 2003. Français. ⟨tel-00201613⟩

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