L. Y. Abramson, M. E. Seligman, and J. Teasdale, Learned helplessness in humans: Critique and reformulation., Journal of Abnormal Psychology, vol.87, issue.1, pp.49-74, 1979.
DOI : 10.1037/0021-843X.87.1.49

R. B. Alderman, Psychological behavior in sport Becoming, 1955.

C. Ames, Classrooms: Goals, structures, and student motivation., Journal of Educational Psychology, vol.84, issue.3, pp.261-71, 1992.
DOI : 10.1037/0022-0663.84.3.261

A. J. Amorose and T. Horn, Intrinsic Motivation: Relationships with Collegiate Athletes??? Gender, Scholarship Status, and Perceptions of Their Coaches??? Behavior, Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, vol.22, issue.1, pp.63-84, 2000.
DOI : 10.1123/jsep.22.1.63

J. C. Anderson and D. W. Gerbing, Structural equation modeling in practice: A review and recommended two-step approach., Psychological Bulletin, vol.103, issue.3, pp.411-423, 1988.
DOI : 10.1037/0033-2909.103.3.411

J. André, De quoi parle-t-on ? D'éducation physique ou de sport ? Les cahiers pédagogiques, pp.40-42, 1998.

J. W. Atkinson, An introduction to motivation, 1964.

M. Attali and J. Saint-martin, La " sportivisation » de l'éducation physique est-elle une réalité historique, Revue EPS, vol.310, pp.51-56, 2004.

J. Baillargeon, L'analyse structurale, 2005.

P. H. Baillie, Understanding Retirement from Sports, The Counseling Psychologist, vol.64, issue.2, pp.399-410, 1995.
DOI : 10.1177/0011000093213004

A. Bandura, Social Foundations of Thought and Action, 1986.
DOI : 10.4135/9781446221129.n6

A. Bandura, Regulation of cognitive processes through perceived self-efficacy., Developmental Psychology, vol.25, issue.5, pp.729-735, 1989.
DOI : 10.1037/0012-1649.25.5.729

R. M. Baron and D. A. Kenny, The moderator???mediator variable distinction in social psychological research: Conceptual, strategic, and statistical considerations., Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, vol.51, issue.6, pp.1173-1182, 1986.
DOI : 10.1037/0022-3514.51.6.1173

R. F. Baumeister and M. R. Leary, The need to belong: Desire for interpersonal attachments as a fundamental human motivation., Psychological Bulletin, vol.117, issue.3, pp.497-529, 1995.
DOI : 10.1037/0033-2909.117.3.497

P. H. Beauchamp, W. R. Halliwell, J. F. Fournier, and R. Koestner, Effects of cognitivebehavioral psychological skills training on the motivation, preparation, and putting performance of novice golfers. The Sport Psychologist, pp.157-170, 1996.

P. M. Bentler, Comparative fit indexes in structural models., Psychological Bulletin, vol.107, issue.2, pp.238-246, 1990.
DOI : 10.1037/0033-2909.107.2.238

P. M. Bentler and D. G. Bonett, Significance tests and goodness of fit in the analysis of covariance structures., Psychological Bulletin, vol.88, issue.3, pp.588-606, 1980.
DOI : 10.1037/0033-2909.88.3.588

D. E. Berlyne, Novelty and curiosity as determinants of exploratory behavior, British Journal of Psychology, vol.41, pp.68-80, 1950.

S. Bertone and J. Méard, Le professeur d'EPS en France et l'attitude de l'élève dans les discours professionnels entre 1984 et 1996, 1999.

A. Du-colloque and A. , Identifier les effets de l'intervention en motricité humaine ». CD-Rom, pp.AFRAPS-EDPM

S. Biddle, N. Chatzisarantis, and M. Hagger, 1. Th??orie de l???autod??termination dans le domaine du sport et de l???exercice physique, Théories de la motivation et pratiques sportives: Etat des recherches, pp.19-55, 2001.
DOI : 10.3917/puf.sarr.2001.01.0017

S. Biddle, I. Soos, and N. Chatzisarantis, Predicting Physical Activity Intentions Using Goal Perspectives and Self-Determination Theory Approaches, European Psychologist, vol.4, issue.2, pp.83-89, 1999.
DOI : 10.1027//1016-9040.4.4.83

M. R. Blais, R. J. Vallerand, A. Gagnon, N. M. Brière, and L. G. Pelletier, Significance, structure, and gender differences in life domains of college students, Sex Roles, vol.30, issue.3-4, pp.199-212, 1990.
DOI : 10.1007/BF00288192

C. Blanchard and R. J. Vallerand, The mediating effects of perceptions of competence, autonomy, and relatedness on the social factors-self-determined situational motivation relationship. Unpublished manuscript, 1996.

C. Blanchard and R. J. Vallerand, Perceptions of competence, autonomy, and relatedness as psychological mediator on the social factors-contextual motivation relationship. Unpublished manuscript, 1996.

C. Blanchard and R. J. Vallerand, On the recursive relations between global motivation and contextual exercise motivation. Unpublished raw Data, 1998.

C. Blanchard, R. J. Vallerand, and P. Provencher, Une analyse des effets bidirectionnels entre la motivation contextuelle et la motivation situationnelle en milieu naturel. Unpublished manuscript, 1998.

A. K. Boggiano and M. Barrett, Performance and motivational deficits of helplessness: The role of motivational orientations., Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, vol.49, issue.6, pp.1753-1761, 1985.
DOI : 10.1037/0022-3514.49.6.1753

J. W. Brehm, A theory of psychological reactance, 1966.

N. M. Brière, R. J. Vallerand, M. R. Blais, and L. G. Pelletier, Développement et validation d'une mesure de motivation intrinsèque, extrinsèque et d'amotivation en contexte sportif: L'échelle de motivation dans les sports (EMS), International Journal of Sport Psychology, vol.26, pp.465-489, 1995.

C. S. Bruck, T. Allen, D. Spector, and P. E. , The Relation between Work???Family Conflict and Job Satisfaction: A Finer-Grained Analysis, Journal of Vocational Behavior, vol.60, issue.3, pp.336-353, 2002.
DOI : 10.1006/jvbe.2001.1836

P. C. Brunel and R. J. Vallerand, (soumis) On the role of personal and social factors in the prediction of situational motivation

J. A. Brunton, Changing Hierarchies of Power in Physical Education Using Sport Education, European Physical Education Review, vol.9, issue.3, pp.267-284, 2003.
DOI : 10.1177/1356336X030093005

G. Bui-xan, A quoi sert l'EPS ? Dossier EPS n°29, Paris : Editions Revue EPS, 1997.

G. Bui-xan, Au plaisir d'éduquer Si l'on parlait du plaisir d'enseigner l'éducation physique, pp.15-30, 2004.

J. Cameron, K. M. Banko, and D. Pierce, Pervasive negative effects of rewards on intrinsic motivation: The myth continues. The Behavior Analyst, pp.1-44, 2001.

J. Cameron and D. Pierce, Reinforcement, Reward, and Intrinsic Motivation: A Meta-Analysis, Review of Educational Research, vol.64, issue.3, pp.363-423, 1994.
DOI : 10.3102/00346543064003363

G. Carlier, Si l'on parlait du plaisir d'enseigner l'éducation physique, 2004.

B. Carroll and J. Loumidis, Childrenis Perceived Competence and Enjoyment in Physical Education and Physical Activity Outside School, European Physical Education Review, vol.7, issue.1, pp.24-43, 2001.
DOI : 10.1177/1356336X010071005

R. B. Catell, The Scree Test For The Number Of Factors, Multivariate Behavioral Research, vol.1, issue.2, pp.245-276, 1966.
DOI : 10.1207/s15327906mbr0102_10

Y. Chantal, F. Guay, T. Dobreva-martinova, and R. J. Vallerand, Motivation and elite performance: An exploratory investigation with Bulgarian athletes, International Journal of Sport Psychology, vol.27, pp.173-182, 1996.

N. L. Chatzisarantis, M. S. Hagger, S. J. Biddle, . Smith, and J. C. Wang, A Meta-Analysis of Perceived Locus of Causality in Exercise, Sport, and Physical Education Contexts, Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, vol.25, issue.3, pp.284-306, 2003.
DOI : 10.1123/jsep.25.3.284

M. Cloes, M. Ledent, and M. Piéron, Motiver pour éduquer, un éclairage qualitative, Si l'on parlait du plaisir d'enseigner l'éducation physique, pp.65-73, 2004.

L. J. Cronbach, Coefficient alpha and the internal structure of tests, Psychometrika, vol.8, issue.3, pp.296-334, 1951.
DOI : 10.1007/BF02310555

M. Csikszentmihalyi, Flow., 1990.
DOI : 10.1037/10518-188

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-01470857

F. Cury, S. Biddle, P. Sarrazin, and J. P. Famose, Achievement goals and perceived ability predict investment in learning a sport task, British Journal of Educational Psychology, vol.67, issue.3, pp.293-309, 1997.
DOI : 10.1111/j.2044-8279.1997.tb01245.x

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00387226

R. Decharms, Personal causation: The internal affective determinants of behavior, 1968.

R. Decharms, Enhancing motivation: Change in the classroom, 1976.

E. L. Deci, Effects of externally mediated rewards on intrinsic motivation., Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, vol.18, issue.1, pp.105-115, 1971.
DOI : 10.1037/h0030644

E. L. Deci, Intrinsic motivation, 1975.

E. L. Deci, The psychology of self-determination, 1980.

E. L. Deci, R. Koestner, and R. M. Ryan, A meta-analytic review of experiments examining the effects of extrinsic rewards on intrinsic motivation., Psychological Bulletin, vol.125, issue.6, pp.627-668, 1999.
DOI : 10.1037/0033-2909.125.6.627

E. L. Deci, R. Koestner, and R. M. Ryan, Extrinsic Rewards and Intrinsic Motivation in Education: Reconsidered Once Again, Review of Educational Research, vol.71, issue.1, pp.1-27, 2001.
DOI : 10.3102/00346543071001001

E. L. Deci and R. M. Ryan, Promoting Self???determined Education, Scandinavian Journal of Educational Research, vol.6, issue.1, pp.3-14, 1984.
DOI : 10.1177/014616727800400317

E. L. Deci and R. M. Ryan, The general causality orientations scale: Self-determination in personality, Journal of Research in Personality, vol.19, issue.2, pp.109-134, 1985.
DOI : 10.1016/0092-6566(85)90023-6

E. L. Deci and R. M. Ryan, Intrinsic motivation and self-determination in human behavior, 1985.
DOI : 10.1007/978-1-4899-2271-7

E. L. Deci and R. M. Ryan, The support of autonomy and the control of behavior., Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, vol.53, issue.6, pp.1024-1037, 1987.
DOI : 10.1037/0022-3514.53.6.1024

E. L. Deci and R. M. Ryan, A motivational approach to self: Integration in personality, Nebraska Symposium on Motivation Perspectives on motivation, pp.237-288, 1991.

E. L. Deci and R. M. Ryan, The "What" and "Why" of Goal Pursuits: Human Needs and the Self-Determination of Behavior, Psychological Inquiry, vol.4, issue.4, pp.227-268, 2000.
DOI : 10.1037//0278-6133.17.3.269

C. Delfosse, M. Ledent, F. Carreiro-da-costa, R. Telama, L. Almond et al., Les attitudes de jeunes Européens à l, pp.96-105, 1997.

R. Dhellemmes, Des situations de « Ré(v)férence » aux formes de pratique scolaire, Les Cahiers du CEDRE, vol.4, pp.67-77, 2004.

D. Delignières and C. Garsault, Libres propos sur l'éducation physique, 2004.

N. Digelidis, A. Papaioannou, K. Laparidis, and T. Christodoulidis, A one-year intervention in 7th grade physical education classes aiming to change motivational climate and attitudes towards exercise, Psychology of Sport and Exercise, vol.4, issue.3, pp.195-210, 2003.
DOI : 10.1016/S1469-0292(02)00002-X

J. Duda, Sport and exercise motivation : A goal perspective analysis, Motivation in Sport and Exercise, pp.57-91, 1992.

J. Duda and J. Nicholls, Dimensions of achievement motivation in schoolwork and sport., Journal of Educational Psychology, vol.84, issue.3, pp.1-10, 1992.
DOI : 10.1037/0022-0663.84.3.290

C. S. Dweck, Motivational processes affecting learning., American Psychologist, vol.41, issue.10, pp.1040-1048, 1986.
DOI : 10.1037/0003-066X.41.10.1040

C. S. Dweck and E. L. Leggett, A social^cognitive approach to motivation and personality., Psychological Review, vol.95, issue.2, pp.256-273, 1988.
DOI : 10.1037/0033-295X.95.2.256

J. S. Eccles and R. D. Harold, Gender differences in sport involvement: Applying the eccles' expectancy-value model, Journal of Applied Sport Psychology, vol.8, issue.1, pp.7-35, 1991.
DOI : 10.1037/0022-3514.42.5.891

A. Elliot, Integrating the " classic " and " contemporary " approaches to achievement motivation: A hierarchical model of approach and avoidance achievement motivation, 1997.

A. Elliot, Approach and avoidance motivation and achievement goals, Educational Psychologist, vol.44, issue.3, pp.169-189, 1999.
DOI : 10.1023/A:1022137619834

A. Elliot, H. A. Mcgregor, and T. M. Thrash, The need of competence, 2002.

R. A. Emmons, Levels and Domains In Personality: An Introduction, Journal of Personality, vol.3, issue.3, pp.341-364, 1995.
DOI : 10.1037//0003-066X.45.6.709

O. Faucon, EPS ou initiation sportive: Les profs d'EPS sont-ils vraiment indispensables, pp.351-362, 2004.

D. L. Feltz, Self-Confidence and Sports Performance, Exercise and Sport Sciences Reviews, vol.16, pp.423-457, 1988.
DOI : 10.1249/00003677-198800160-00016

E. Ferrer and J. J. Mcardle, Alternative structural for multivariate longitudinal data analysis Structural Equation Modeling: A Multidisciplinary Journal, pp.493-524, 2003.

E. Ferrer-caja and M. Weiss, Predictors of Intrinsic Motivation among Adolescent Students in Physical Education, Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, vol.62, issue.3, pp.267-279, 2000.
DOI : 10.1080/02701367.2000.10608907

E. Ferrer-caja and M. Weiss, Cross-Validation of a Model of Intrinsic Motivation With Students Enrolled in High School Elective Courses, The Journal of Experimental Education, vol.29, issue.1, pp.41-65, 2002.
DOI : 10.1037/0022-0663.81.2.265

L. Festinger, A theory of cognitive dissonance, 1957.

D. W. Fisk and S. R. Maddi, Functions of varied experience, 1961.

J. Florence, Vivre une intervention éducative dans l'optique d'une pédagogie des motivations, Enseigner l'Education Physique au Secondaire, pp.37-68, 1998.

M. E. Ford, Human Motivation: Goals, Emotions, and Personal Agency Beliefs, 1992.
DOI : 10.4135/9781483325361

M. S. Fortier, R. J. Vallerand, N. M. Brière, and P. Provencher, Competitive and recreational sport structures and gender: A test of their relationship with sport motivation, International Journal of Sport Psychology, vol.26, pp.24-39, 1995.

C. Frederick-recascino, Self-determination theory and participation motivation research in the sport and exercise domain, Handbook of Self-Determination, pp.277-294, 2002.

S. Freud, L'interprétation des rêves. Trad. Fr. I. Meyerson. Paris : Alcan, 1900.

S. Freud, Introduction à la psychanalyse, Trad. Fr. S. Jankelévitch. Paris : Payot, 1918.
DOI : 10.1522/cla.frs.int

P. Gagnaire and F. Lavie, Les collégiens éprouvent-ils du plaisir en EPS ? Hyper EPS, pp.2-6, 2006.

J. Gagnon and D. Martel, Des expériences de régulation d'enseignement: Une source de savoirs professionnels, Si l'on parlait du plaisir d'enseigner l'éducation physique, pp.213-226, 2004.

E. Garrigue, F. Pillard, I. De-glisezinski, I. Harant, F. Crampes et al., Sans titre, Science & Sports, vol.21, pp.12-19, 2006.

M. Georgiadis, S. Biddle, and N. Chatzisarantis, The mediating role of self-determination in the relationship between goal orientations and physical self-worth in greek exercisers, European Journal of Sport Science, vol.71, issue.5, 2001.
DOI : 10.1348/000709900158074

R. L. Gorsuch, Factor Analysis, 1983.
DOI : 10.1002/0471264385.wei0206

M. Goudas and S. Biddle, Pupil perceptions of enjoyment in physical education, Physical Education Review, vol.16, issue.2, pp.145-150, 1993.

M. Goudas, S. Biddle, and K. Fox, Perceived locus of causality, goal orientations, and perceived competence in school physical education classes, British Journal of Educational Psychology, vol.64, issue.3, pp.453-463, 1994.
DOI : 10.1111/j.2044-8279.1994.tb01116.x

M. Goudas, S. Biddle, K. Fox, and A. M. Underwood, It Ain???t What You Do, It???s the Way that You Do It! Teaching Style Affects Children???s Motivation in Track and Field Lessons, The Sport Psychologist, vol.9, issue.3, pp.254-264, 1995.
DOI : 10.1123/tsp.9.3.254

M. Goudas, I. Dermitzaki, and K. Bagiatis, Predictors of students??? intrinsic motivation in school physical education, European Journal of Psychology of Education, vol.62, issue.3, pp.21-280, 2000.
DOI : 10.1007/BF03173179

R. Graef, M. Csikszentmihalyi, and S. M. Gianinno, Measuring intrinsic motivation in everyday life, Leisure Studies, vol.1, issue.2, pp.155-168, 1983.
DOI : 10.1080/02614368300390121

F. M. Grouzet, R. J. Vallerand, E. E. Thill, and P. Provencher, From Environmental Factors to Outcomes: A Test of an Integrated Motivational Sequence, Motivation and Emotion, vol.4, issue.4, pp.331-346, 2004.
DOI : 10.1007/s11031-004-2387-z

F. Guay, M. R. Blais, R. J. Vallerand, and L. G. Pelletier, The global motivation scale, 1999.
DOI : 10.1037/t17066-000

F. Guay, G. A. Mageau, and R. J. Vallerand, On the Hierarchical Structure of Self-Determined Motivation: A Test of Top-Down, Bottom-Up, Reciprocal, and Horizontal Effects, Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, vol.29, issue.8, pp.29-992, 2003.
DOI : 10.1177/0146167203253297

F. Guay, R. J. Vallerand, and C. M. Blanchard, On the assessment of state intrinsic and extrinsic motivation: The situational motivation scale (SIMS) Motivation and Emotion, pp.175-213, 2000.

M. S. Hagger, N. L. Chatzisarantis, T. Culverhouse, and S. J. Biddle, The Processes by Which Perceived Autonomy Support in Physical Education Promotes Leisure-Time Physical Activity Intentions and Behavior: A Trans-Contextual Model., Journal of Educational Psychology, vol.95, issue.4, pp.784-795, 2003.
DOI : 10.1037/0022-0663.95.4.784

M. S. Hagger, N. L. Chatzisarantis, and J. Harris, From Psychological Need Satisfaction to Intentional Behavior: Testing a Motivational Sequence in Two Behavioral Contexts, Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, vol.33, issue.2, pp.131-148, 2006.
DOI : 10.1177/0146167205279905

H. F. Harlow, Learning and satiation of response in intrinsically motivated complex puzzle performance by monkeys., Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology, vol.43, issue.4, pp.289-294, 1950.
DOI : 10.1037/h0058114

S. Harter, Effectance Motivation Reconsidered Toward a Developmental Model, Human Development, vol.21, issue.1, pp.34-64, 1978.
DOI : 10.1159/000271574

S. Harter, A new self-report scale of intrinsic versus extrinsic orientation in the classroom: Motivational and informational components., Developmental Psychology, vol.17, issue.3, pp.300-312, 1981.
DOI : 10.1037/0012-1649.17.3.300

M. Hassandra, M. Goudas, and S. Chroni, Examining factors associated with intrinsic motivation in physical education: a qualitative approach, Psychology of Sport and Exercise, vol.4, issue.3, pp.211-223, 2003.
DOI : 10.1016/S1469-0292(02)00006-7

N. Hauw, C. Angot, and P. C. Brunel, Motivation situationnelle et contextuelle en EPS: Un test des effets bottom-up et top-down, 2005.

D. O. Hebb, Drives and the C. N. S. (conceptual nervous system)., Psychological Review, vol.62, issue.4, pp.243-254, 1955.
DOI : 10.1037/h0041823

F. Heider, The psychology of interpersonal relations, 1958.
DOI : 10.1037/10628-000

V. Hein, M. Müür, and A. Koka, Intention to be Physically Active after School Graduation and Its Relationship to Three Types of Intrinsic Motivation, European Physical Education Review, vol.10, issue.1, pp.5-19, 2004.
DOI : 10.1177/1356336X04040618

I. Hendrick, INSTINCT AND THE EGO DURING INFANCY, The Psychoanalytic Quarterly, vol.5, issue.5-6, pp.33-58, 1942.
DOI : 10.1002/j.2167-4086.2007.tb00261.x

R. J. House, S. A. Shane, and D. M. Herold, Rumors of the Death of Dispositional Research are Vastly Exaggerated, Academy of Management Review, vol.21, issue.1, pp.203-224, 1996.

L. T. Hu and P. M. Bentler, Evaluating model fit, Structural equation modeling: concepts, issues, and applications Thousand Oak, pp.76-99, 1995.

L. T. Hu and P. M. Bentler, Cutoff criteria for fit indexes in covariance structure analysis: Conventional criteria versus new alternatives, Structural Equation Modeling: A Multidisciplinary Journal, vol.42, issue.1, pp.1-51, 1999.
DOI : 10.1007/BF02291170

C. L. Hull, Principles of Behavior, The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, vol.101, issue.4, 1943.
DOI : 10.1097/00005053-194504000-00026

S. A. Jackson and H. Marsh, Development and Validation of a Scale to Measure Optimal Experience: The Flow State Scale, Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, vol.18, issue.1, pp.17-35, 1996.
DOI : 10.1123/jsep.18.1.17

L. R. James, S. A. Mulaik, and J. M. Brett, Causal analysis : Assumption, models, and data, 1982.

J. Jeantheau, P. Murat, and F. , Perception du collège et de la vie scolaire par les élèves en fin de troisième. Les dossiers, 1998.

K. G. Jöreskog, A GENERAL APPROACH TO CONFIRMATORY MAXIMUM LIKELIHOOD FACTOR ANALYSIS, ETS Research Bulletin Series, vol.23, issue.2, pp.182-202, 1969.
DOI : 10.1002/j.2333-8504.1967.tb00991.x

K. G. Jöreskog, Statistical estimation of structural models in longitudinal-developmental investigations, Longitudinal research in the study of behavior and development, pp.303-352, 1979.

K. G. Jöreskog and D. Sörbom, LISREL 8: Structural equation model with the SIMPLIS command language, 1996.

M. Kavussanu and G. C. Roberts, Motivation and physical activity contexts: The relationship of perceived motivational climate to intrinsic motivation and self-efficacy, 1996.

R. B. Kline, Principles and practice of structural equation modeling, 1998.

A. Koka and V. Hein, The effect of perceived teacher feedback on intrinsic motivation in physical education, International Journal of Sport Psychology, vol.36, pp.91-106, 2005.

J. Kowal, Toward a motivational model of flow, Unpublished doctoral dissertation, 1998.

J. Kowal and M. S. Fortier, Motivational Determinants of Flow: Contributions From Self-Determination Theory, The Journal of Social Psychology, vol.29, issue.3, pp.355-368, 1999.
DOI : 10.1037/0022-3514.70.1.115

J. Kowal and M. S. Fortier, Testing Relationships from the Hierarchical Model of Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivation Using Flow as a Motivational Consequence, Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, vol.63, issue.2, pp.171-181, 2000.
DOI : 10.1080/02701367.2000.10608895

N. Leonard, L. Beauvais, and R. Scholl, Work Motivation: The Incorporation of Self-Concept-Based Processes, Human Relations, vol.52, issue.8, pp.969-998, 1999.
DOI : 10.1177/001872679905200801

M. R. Lepper, D. Greene, and R. E. Nisbett, Undermining children's intrinsic interest with extrinsic reward: A test of the "overjustification" hypothesis., Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, vol.28, issue.1, pp.129-137, 1973.
DOI : 10.1037/h0035519

C. Levesque and L. G. Pelletier, On the Investigation of Primed and Chronic Autonomous and Heteronomous Motivational Orientations, Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, vol.29, issue.12, pp.1570-1584, 2003.
DOI : 10.1037/0022-3514.50.2.229

C. Levesque, A. N. Zuehlke, L. R. Stanek, and R. M. Ryan, Autonomy and Competence in German and American University Students: A Comparative Study Based on Self-Determination Theory., Journal of Educational Psychology, vol.96, issue.1, pp.68-84, 2004.
DOI : 10.1037/0022-0663.96.1.68

K. Lewin, Principles of topological psychology, 1936.
DOI : 10.1037/10019-000

F. Li and P. Harmer, Testing the Simplex Assumption Underlying the Sport Motivation Scale: A Structural Equation Modeling Analysis, Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, vol.52, issue.4, pp.396-405, 1996.
DOI : 10.1080/02701367.1996.10607971

P. W. Linville, Self-complexity as a cognitive buffer against stress-related illness and depression., Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, vol.52, issue.4, pp.663-676, 1987.
DOI : 10.1037/0022-3514.52.4.663

E. A. Locke and G. P. Latham, A theory of goal setting and task performance, 1990.

C. Levesque, A. N. Zuehlke, L. R. Stanek, and R. M. Ryan, Autonomy and Competence in German and American University Students: A Comparative Study Based on Self-Determination Theory., Journal of Educational Psychology, vol.96, issue.1, pp.67-84, 2004.
DOI : 10.1037/0022-0663.96.1.68

L. Machard, Sport, adolescence et famille, 2003.

S. R. Maddi, M. Hoover, and S. O. Kobasa, Alienation and exploratory behavior., Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, vol.42, issue.5, pp.884-890, 1982.
DOI : 10.1037/0022-3514.42.5.884

S. R. Maddi, S. O. Kobasa, and M. Hoover, An Alienation Test, Journal of Humanistic Psychology, vol.19, issue.4, pp.73-76, 1982.
DOI : 10.1177/002216787901900407

M. L. Maehr, Meaning and motivation: Toward a theory of personal investment, 1984.

&. C. Ames and . Ames, Research motivation in education: Student motivation, pp.115-144

M. L. Maehr and J. G. Nicholls, Culture and achievement: A second look, Studies in cross-cultural psychology, pp.221-267, 1980.

G. A. Mageau and R. J. Vallerand, The coach???athlete relationship: a motivational model, Journal of Sports Sciences, vol.21, issue.11, pp.883-904, 2003.
DOI : 10.1007/978-1-4613-4446-9

M. J. Manfredo, B. L. Driver, and M. A. Tarrant, Measuring leisure motivation: A metaanalysis of the recreation experience preference scales, Journal of Leisure Research, vol.28, issue.3, pp.188-213, 1996.

K. V. Mardia, Applications of some measures of multivariate skewness and kurtosis in testing normality and robustness studies, Sankhya, Series B, vol.35, pp.115-128, 1974.

D. Markland, Self-Determination Moderates the Effects of Perceived Competence on Intrinsic Motivation in an Exercise Setting, Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, vol.21, issue.4, pp.351-361, 1999.
DOI : 10.1123/jsep.21.4.351

C. Marsault, Les programmations en EPS??: la mise en forme des APS, Staps, vol.67, issue.1, pp.9-20, 2005.
DOI : 10.3917/sta.067.0009

URL : http://www.cairn.info/load_pdf.php?ID_ARTICLE=STA_067_0009

H. W. Marsh, J. R. Balla, and R. P. Mcdonald, Goodness-of-fit indices in confirmatory factor analysis: The effect of sample size, Psychological Bulletin, vol.102, pp.391-410, 1988.

H. W. Marsh, B. Byrne, M. Yeung, and A. S. , Causal ordering of academic self-concept and achievement: Reanalysis of a pioneering study and..., Educational Psychologist, vol.26, issue.3, pp.155-167, 1999.
DOI : 10.1037//0022-0663.74.1.3

H. W. Marsh and R. Graven, Reciprocal Effects of Self-Concept and Performance From a Multidimensional Perspective: Beyond Seductive Pleasure and Unidimensional Perspectives, Perspectives on Psychological Science, vol.2, issue.1, pp.133-163, 2006.
DOI : 10.1037/0022-3514.54.6.1063

H. W. Marsh and K. T. Hau, Assessing Goodness of Fit, The Journal of Experimental Education, vol.64, issue.4, pp.364-390, 1996.
DOI : doi:10.1007/BF02291170

H. W. Marsh and A. S. Yeung, Causal effects of academic self-concept on academic achievement: Structural equation models of longitudinal data., Journal of Educational Psychology, vol.89, issue.1, pp.41-54, 1997.
DOI : 10.1037/0022-0663.89.1.41

H. W. Marsh and A. S. Yeung, Top-down, bottom-up, and horizontal models: The direction of causality in multidimensional, hierarchical self-concept models., Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, vol.75, issue.2, pp.75-509, 1998.
DOI : 10.1037/0022-3514.75.2.509

A. H. Maslow, Motivation and personality, 1970.

R. J. Mayo, The development and construct validation of a measure of intrinsic motivation, Dissertation Abstracts International, vol.37, issue.5417, pp.77-7491, 1977.

E. Mcauley, T. Duncan, and V. V. Tammen, Psychometric Properties of the Intrinsic Motivation Inventory in a Competitive Sport Setting: A Confirmatory Factor Analysis, Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, vol.7, issue.1, pp.48-58, 1989.
DOI : 10.1080/02701367.1989.10607413

D. C. Mcclelland, Human motivation, 1985.
DOI : 10.1017/CBO9781139878289

S. A. Mitchell, Relationships between Perceived Learning Environment and Intrinsic Motivation in Middle School Physical Education, Journal of Teaching in Physical Education, vol.15, issue.3, pp.369-383, 1996.
DOI : 10.1123/jtpe.15.3.369

C. Mountakis, Differences between Physical Education and Top-Level Sport, European Physical Education Review, vol.7, issue.1, pp.92-106, 2001.
DOI : 10.1177/1356336X010071002

E. Mullan, D. Markland, and D. K. Ingledew, Motivation for exercise: Development of a measure of behavioral regulation, Journal of Sports Sciences, vol.15, pp.98-99, 1997.

H. Murray and A. , Exploration in personality: A clinical and experimental study of fifty men of college age, 1938.

J. G. Nicholls, Conceptions of ability and achievement motivation, Research on motivation in education, pp.39-73, 1984.

J. G. Nicholls, The competitive ethos and democratic education, 1989.

J. G. Nicholls, P. C. Cheung, J. Lauer, and M. Pataschnick, Individual differences in academic motivation: Perceived ability, goals, beliefs, and values, Learning and Individual Differences, vol.1, issue.1, pp.63-84, 1989.
DOI : 10.1016/1041-6080(89)90010-1

N. Ntoumanis, A self-determination approach to the understanding of motivation in physical education, British Journal of Educational Psychology, vol.71, issue.2, pp.225-242, 2001.
DOI : 10.1348/000709901158497

N. Ntoumanis, A Prospective Study of Participation in Optional School Physical Education Using a Self-Determination Theory Framework., Journal of Educational Psychology, vol.97, issue.3, pp.444-453, 2005.
DOI : 10.1037/0022-0663.97.3.444

N. Ntoumanis and G. Blaymires, Contextual and Situational Motivation in Education: A Test of the Specificity Hypothesis, European Physical Education Review, vol.9, issue.1, pp.5-21, 2003.
DOI : 10.1177/1356336X03009001177

N. Ntoumanis, A. Pensgaard, C. Martin, and K. Pipe, An Idiographic Analysis of Amotivation in Compulsory School Physical Education, Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, vol.26, issue.2, pp.197-214, 2004.
DOI : 10.1123/jsep.26.2.197

J. C. Nunnally, Psychometric theory, 1978.

O. Connor, S. C. Rosenblood, and L. K. , Affiliation motivation in everyday experience: A theoretical comparison., Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, vol.70, issue.3, pp.513-522, 1996.
DOI : 10.1037/0022-3514.70.3.513

Y. Ommundsen, Self-handicapping strategies in physical education classes: the influence of implicit theories of the nature of ability and achievement goal orientations, Psychology of Sport and Exercise, vol.2, issue.3, pp.139-156, 2001.
DOI : 10.1016/S1469-0292(00)00019-4

N. Otis, F. M. Grouzet, and L. G. Pelletier, Latent Motivational Change in an Academic Setting: A 3-Year Longitudinal Study., Journal of Educational Psychology, vol.97, issue.2, pp.170-183, 2005.
DOI : 10.1037/0022-0663.97.2.170

A. Papaioannou, Development of a Questionnaire to Measure Achievement Orientations in Physical Education, Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, vol.3, issue.1, pp.11-20, 1994.
DOI : 10.1080/02701367.1994.10762203

L. E. Parish and D. C. Treasure, Physical Activity and Situational Motivation in Physical Education: Influence of the Motivational Climate and Perceived Ability, Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, vol.72, issue.2, pp.173-182, 2003.
DOI : 10.1080/02701367.2003.10609079

L. G. Pelletier, S. Dion, K. Tuson, and I. Green-demers, Why Do People Fail to Adopt Environmental Protective Behaviors? Toward a Taxonomy of Environmental Amotivation1, Journal of Applied Social Psychology, vol.10, issue.2, pp.2481-2504, 1999.
DOI : 10.1901/jaba.1976.9-315

L. G. Pelletier, M. S. Fortier, R. J. Vallerand, and N. M. Brière, Associations among perceived autonomy support, forms of self-regulation, and persistence : A prospective study, Motivation and Emotion, vol.2, pp.279-306, 2001.

L. G. Pelletier, M. S. Fortier, R. J. Vallerand, K. M. Tuson, and N. M. Brière, Toward a New Measure of Intrinsic Motivation, Extrinsic Motivation, and Amotivation in Sports: The Sport Motivation Scale (SMS), Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, vol.17, issue.1, pp.35-53, 1995.
DOI : 10.1123/jsep.17.1.35

L. G. Pelletier and R. J. Vallerand, Une perspective humaniste de la motivation: Les théories de la compétence et de l'autodétermination, Introduction à la psychologie de la motivation Montréal: Editions Etudes Vivantes, pp.233-281, 1993.

L. G. Pelletier, R. J. Vallerand, I. Green-demers, M. Blais, and N. M. Brière, Construction et validation d'une mesure de motivation intrinsèque, de motivation extrinsèque et d'amotivation vis-à-vis des activités de loisirs: l'Echelle de motivation vi-à-vis des loisirs (EML), Society and Leisure, vol.19, pp.559-585, 1996.

M. Piéron, Pédagogie des activités physiques et du sport, Paris: Editions Revue EPS, 1992.

K. Popper, La logique de la découverte scientifique, 1978.

C. F. Ratelle, M. W. Baldwin, and R. J. Vallerand, On the cued activation of situational motivation, Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, vol.41, issue.5, pp.482-487, 2005.
DOI : 10.1016/j.jesp.2004.10.001

C. F. Ratelle and R. J. Vallerand, Les conséquences affectives, cognitives et comportementales d'un conflit motivationnel. Communication présentée au Congrès annuel de la Société québécoise pour la recherche en psychologie, 1998.

C. F. Ratelle, R. J. Vallerand, C. Senécal, and P. Provencher, The Relationship Between School-Leisure Conflict and Educational and Mental Health Indexes: A Motivational Analysis, Journal of Applied Social Psychology, vol.53, issue.9, pp.1800-1823, 2005.
DOI : 10.1037/0022-3514.72.5.1161

T. Raykov and G. A. Marcoulides, On desirability of parsimony in structural equation model selection, Structural Equation Modeling: A Multidisciplinary Journal, vol.64, issue.3, pp.292-300, 1999.
DOI : 10.1080/10705519809540115

J. Reeve, Self-determination theory applied to educational settings, Handbook of Self-Determination Research, pp.183-203, 2002.

S. F. Richer, C. Blanchard, and R. J. Vallerand, A Motivational Model of Work Turnover, Journal of Applied Social Psychology, vol.4, issue.10, pp.1-26, 2002.
DOI : 10.1037//0021-9010.83.3.486

G. C. Roberts, Motivation in sport and exercise, 1992.

G. C. Roberts, Understanding the dynamics of motivation in physical activity: The influence of achievement goals on motivational processes, Advances in motivation in sport and exercise, pp.1-50, 2001.

J. Romeu and A. Ozturk, A New Graphical Test for Multivariate Normality, American Journal of Mathematical and Management Sciences, vol.2, issue.2, pp.5-26, 1983.
DOI : 10.1080/01966324.1996.10737410

C. Rogers, Client centered therapy, 1951.

P. Roussel, F. Durrieu, E. Campoy, and A. Akremi, Méthodes d'équations structurelles: Recherches et applications en gestion, 2002.

R. M. Ryan, Attribution, intrinsic motivation, and athletics: A replication and extension, Psychology of motor behavior and sport, pp.19-26, 1980.

R. M. Ryan, Psychological Needs and the Facilitation of Integrative Processes, Journal of Personality, vol.66, issue.1, pp.397-427, 1995.
DOI : 10.1037//0003-066X.46.12.1278

R. M. Ryan and J. P. Connell, Perceived locus of causality and internalization: Examining reasons for acting in two domains., Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, vol.57, issue.5, pp.749-761, 1989.
DOI : 10.1037/0022-3514.57.5.749

R. M. Ryan, J. P. Connell, and W. S. Grolnick, When achievement is not intrinsically motivated: A theory and assessment of self-regulation in school, 1992.

. Pittman, Achievement and motivation: A social-developmental perspective (pp.167- 188)

R. M. Ryan and E. L. Deci, Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivations: Classic Definitions and New Directions, Contemporary Educational Psychology, vol.25, issue.1, pp.54-67, 2000.
DOI : 10.1006/ceps.1999.1020

URL : http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/summary?doi=10.1.1.318.808

R. M. Ryan and E. L. Deci, Self-determination theory and the facilitation of intrinsic motivation, social development, and well-being., American Psychologist, vol.55, issue.1, pp.68-78, 2000.
DOI : 10.1037/0003-066X.55.1.68

R. M. Ryan and E. L. Deci, The Darker and Brighter Sides of Human Existence: Basic Psychological Needs as a Unifying Concept, Psychological Inquiry, vol.4, issue.4, pp.319-338, 2000.
DOI : 10.1037//0022-3514.70.1.115

R. M. Ryan and E. L. Deci, Overview of self-determination theory: An organismic dialectical perspective, Handbook of Self-Determination, pp.3-33, 2002.

P. Sarreméjane, L'EPS depuis 1945: Histoire des théories et des méthodes, 2004.

A. Satorra and P. M. Bentler, Corrections to test statistics and standard errors in covariance structure analysis Latent variables analysis: applications for developmental research, pp.399-419, 1994.

J. Saury, B. Huet, and C. Rossard, Les fiches d'observation comme artefacts cognitifs dans la dynamique de l'activité de collégiens en éducation physique et sportive, Recherches actuelles en sciences du sport, 2005.

M. E. Seligman, Helplessness: On depression, development, and death, 1975.

C. Senécal, R. Koestner, and R. J. Vallerand, Self-Regulation and Academic Procrastination, The Journal of Social Psychology, vol.15, issue.5, pp.607-619, 1995.
DOI : 10.1177/0013164489491016

C. Senécal, E. Julien, and F. Guay, Role conflict and academic procrastination: A self-determination perspective, European Journal of Social Psychology, vol.17, issue.3, pp.135-145, 2003.
DOI : 10.1002/ejsp.144

C. Senécal, R. J. Vallerand, and F. Guay, Antecedents and Outcomes of Work-Family Conflict: Toward a Motivational Model, Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, vol.21, issue.2, pp.176-186, 2001.
DOI : 10.1002/9781118619179

P. Seners, Pour une " EPS " qui soit une véritable " éducation physique scolaire, Revue EPS, vol.302, pp.67-71, 2003.

J. Simons, S. Dewitte, and W. Lens, ???Don???t Do It for Me. Do It for Yourself!??? Stressing the Personal Relevance Enhances Motivation in Physical Education, Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, vol.25, issue.2, pp.145-160, 2003.
DOI : 10.1123/jsep.25.2.145

B. F. Skinner, Science and human behavior, 1953.

M. Standage, J. L. Duda, and N. Ntoumanis, A model of contextual motivation in physical education: Using constructs from self-determination and achievement goal theories to predict physical activity intentions., Journal of Educational Psychology, vol.95, issue.1, pp.97-110, 2003.
DOI : 10.1037/0022-0663.95.1.97

M. Standage, J. L. Duda, and N. Ntoumanis, Predicting motivational regulations in physical education: the interplay between dispositional goal orientations, motivational climate and perceived competence, Journal of Sports Sciences, vol.21, issue.8, pp.631-647, 2003.
DOI : 10.1080/0264041031000101962

M. Standage, J. L. Duda, and N. Ntoumanis, A test of self-determination theory in school physical education, British Journal of Educational Psychology, vol.70, issue.3, pp.411-433, 2005.
DOI : 10.1348/000709904X22359

M. Standage and D. C. Treasure, Relationship among achievement goal orientations and multidimensional situational motivation in physical education, British Journal of Educational Psychology, vol.72, issue.1, pp.87-103, 2002.
DOI : 10.1348/000709902158784

B. M. Staw and J. Ross, Stability in the midst of change: A dispositional approach to job attitudes., Journal of Applied Psychology, vol.70, issue.3, pp.469-480, 1985.
DOI : 10.1037/0021-9010.70.3.469

Y. Stephan, J. Bilard, and G. Ninot, L'arrêt de la carrière sportive de haut niveau: Un phénomène dynamique et multidimensionnel, Science et Motricité, vol.54, pp.35-62, 2005.

E. Thill and J. Mouanda, Autonomie ou contrôle en contexte sportif: Validité de la théorie de l'évaluation cognitive, International Journal of Sport Psychology, vol.21, pp.1-20, 1990.

E. Thill and R. J. Vallerand, Conclusion, Introduction à la psychologie de la motivation Montréal: Editions Etudes Vivantes, pp.583-605, 1993.
DOI : 10.1515/9781400864003.252

L. Thomas, Du mythe d'éducation physique au bonheur des heures d'APS A quoi sert l'EPS ? Paris: Editions Revue EPS, pp.563-575, 1997.

E. L. Thorndike, The psychology of learning, 1913.

E. C. Tolman, Purposive behavior in animals and men, 1932.

M. Travert, O. Aoustet, and J. Griffet, Les élèves et le sport, Revue EPS, vol.315, pp.29-32, 2005.

D. Trouilloud and P. Sarrazin, L'effet Pygmalion existe-t-il ? Influence des attentes des enseignants sur la motivation et la réussite des élèves, Science et Motricité, vol.46, pp.69-94, 2002.

L. R. Tucker and C. Lewis, A reliability coefficient for maximum likelihood factor analysis, Psychometrika, vol.34, issue.1, pp.1-10, 1973.
DOI : 10.1007/BF02291170

R. R. Vallacher, A. Nowak, M. Froehlich, and M. Rockloff, The Dynamics of Self-Evaluation, Personality and Social Psychology Review, vol.4, issue.4, pp.370-379, 2002.
DOI : 10.1207/S15327957PSPR0604_11

R. J. Vallerand, La motivation intrinsèque et extrinsèque en contexte naturel: Implications pour les secteurs de l'éducation, du travail, des relations interpersonnelles et des loisirs, 1993.

R. J. Vallerand, Toward A Hierarchical Model of Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivation, Advances in Experimental social psychology, vol.29, pp.271-360, 1997.
DOI : 10.1016/S0065-2601(08)60019-2

R. J. Vallerand, Deci and Ryan's self-determined theory: A view from the hierarchical model of intrinsic and extrinsic motivation, Psychological Inquiry, vol.11, pp.312-318, 2000.

R. J. Vallerand, A hierarchical model of intrinsic and extrinsic motivation in sport and exercise, Advances in motivation in sport and exercise, pp.263-319, 2001.

R. J. Vallerand and C. Blanchard, A test of the motivation-consequences relationship at three levels of generality. Unpublished raw data, 1998.

R. J. Vallerand and L. Bouffard, Concepts et théories en attribution, Revue Québécoise de Psychologie, vol.6, pp.323-349, 1985.

R. J. Vallerand, E. L. Deci, and R. M. Ryan, 12 Intrinsic Motivation in Sport, Exercise and sport science reviews, pp.389-425, 1987.
DOI : 10.1249/00003677-198700150-00015

R. J. Vallerand and M. S. Fortier, Measures of intrinsic and extrinsic motivation in sport and physical activity: A review and critique, Advances in sport and exercise psychology measurement, pp.81-101, 1998.

R. J. Vallerand and F. M. Grouzet, 2. Pour un Mod??le hi??rarchique de la motivation intrins??que et extrins??que dans les Pratiques sportives et l???activit?? physique, Théories de la motivation et pratiques sportives: Etat des recherches, pp.57-95, 2001.
DOI : 10.3917/puf.sarr.2001.01.0057

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/in2p3-00643904

R. J. Vallerand, F. Guay, C. Blanchard, and I. Cadorette, Self-regulatory processes in human behavior: A confirmatory test of some elements of the hierarchical model of intrinsic and extrinsic motivation. Unpublished manuscript, 2002.

R. J. Vallerand and G. F. Losier, An integrative analysis of intrinsic and extrinsic motivation in sport, Journal of Applied Sport Psychology, vol.17, issue.1, pp.142-169, 1999.
DOI : 10.1037/h0040934

R. J. Vallerand and C. F. Ratelle, Toward A Hierarchical Model of Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivation, 2002.
DOI : 10.1016/S0065-2601(08)60019-2

R. J. Vallerand and G. Reid, On the Causal Effects of Perceived Competence on Intrinsic Motivation: A Test of Cognitive Evaluation Theory, Journal of Sport Psychology, vol.6, issue.1, pp.94-102, 1984.
DOI : 10.1123/jsp.6.1.94

R. J. Vallerand and F. L. Rousseau, Intrinsic and extrinsic motivation in sport and exercise : A review using the hierarchical model of intrinsic and extrinsic motivation, 2001.

R. J. Vallerand and E. Thill, Introduction au concept de la motivation, Introduction à la psychologie de la motivation Montréal: Editions Etudes Vivantes, pp.2-39, 1993.

R. Viau, La motivation en contexte scolaire, 1997.

V. H. Vroom, Work and motivation, 1964.

J. K. Wang and S. Biddle, Young People???s Motivational Profiles in Physical Activity: A Cluster Analysis, Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, vol.23, issue.1, pp.1-22, 2001.
DOI : 10.1123/jsep.23.1.1

J. K. Wang, N. L. Chatzisarantis, C. M. Spray, and S. J. Biddle, Achievement goal profiles in school physical education: Differences in self-determination, sport ability beliefs, and physical activity, British Journal of Educational Psychology, vol.72, issue.3, pp.433-445, 2002.
DOI : 10.1348/000709902320634401

B. Weiner, An attributional theory of motivation and emotion, 1986.
DOI : 10.1007/978-1-4612-4948-1

R. W. White, Motivation reconsidered: The concept of competence., Psychological Review, vol.66, issue.5, pp.297-333, 1959.
DOI : 10.1037/h0040934

G. C. Williams, V. M. Grow, Z. Freedman, R. M. Ryan, and E. L. Deci, Motivational predictors of weight loss and weight-loss maintenance., Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, vol.70, issue.1, pp.115-126, 1996.
DOI : 10.1037/0022-3514.70.1.115

G. C. Williams, G. C. Rodin, R. M. Ryan, W. S. Grolnick, and E. L. Deci, Autonomous regulation and long-term medication adherence in adult outpatients., Health Psychology, vol.17, issue.3, pp.269-276, 1998.
DOI : 10.1037/0278-6133.17.3.269

P. N. Zahariadis, H. Tsorbatzoudis, and G. Grouios, The Sport Motivation Scale for Children: Preliminary Analysis in Physical Education Classes, Perceptual and Motor Skills, vol.60, issue.1, pp.43-54, 2005.
DOI : 10.1080/10413209908402956