Le déclenchement des avalanches de plaque de neige:
De l'approche mécanique à l'approche statistique.

Abstract : The present work aims at understanding the mechanisms responsible for
snow slab avalanche formation.
A first approach consists in applying to snow well known concepts of Fracture Mechanics. Experimental measurements of fracture toughness, are interpreted in terms of the particular structure of snow.
A statistical approach is then used, based on databases provided by La Plagne and Tignes ski resorts. We show for the first time that avalanche sizes are scale invariant.
Models used to describe such phenomena usually fail in correctly reproducing field data. We introduce a two-threshold stress-driven cellular automaton. We show that the statistical behaviour characteristic of snow avalanches, but also of other gravity-driven failures, can be easily reproduced acting on a single parameter that accounts
for the cohesion anisotropy of the material. The present approach may be considered as an alternative to Self Organised Criticality for gravity-driven systems.
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Contributor : Jerome Faillettaz <>
Submitted on : Tuesday, November 27, 2007 - 4:35:45 PM
Last modification on : Friday, December 21, 2018 - 1:03:36 AM
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Jerome Faillettaz. Le déclenchement des avalanches de plaque de neige:
De l'approche mécanique à l'approche statistique.. Géologie appliquée. Université Joseph-Fourier - Grenoble I, 2003. Français. ⟨tel-00192355⟩

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