Abstract : In a context where new technologies and equipment allow for mass treatment of samples and where research teams share more and more acquired data, scientists are facing a major data exploitation problem. More precisely using this data through data mining tools or replacing it in a classical experimental approach require a preliminary grasp on the information space in order to direct the process. But acquiring this grasp on the data is a complex activity which is seldom supported by current software tools.
The goal of this thesis is to propose a solution to this scientific data grasp. Illustrated in the Tissue MicroArrays application domain, the proposal is based on the synthesis notion, which is inspired by Information Retrieval paradigms. The envisionned synthesis model gives a central role to the study the researcher wants to conduct through the task notion. It allows for the operationnalisation of a task-oriented Information Retrieval through a prototype. The prototype which has been developped is validated by case studies and an user study. It opens interesting prospects for the extension of the model or extensions towards other application domains.