P. Cadet, B. Martiny, D. Masse, and J. Thioulouse, Developpment of nematode population during fallow periods in the soudanese-sahelian region of Senegal, Nematologica, vol.41, pp.277-356, 1995.

M. Sarr, C. Agbogba, A. Russell-smith, and D. Masse, Effects of soil faunal activity and woody shrubs on water infiltration rates in a semi-arid fallow of Senegal, Applied Soil Ecology, vol.16, issue.3, pp.283-290, 2001.
DOI : 10.1016/S0929-1393(00)00126-8

J. Gignoux, L. Abbadie, D. Hall, J. House, D. Masse et al., Design and test of a generic cohort model of soil organic matter decomposition: the SOMKO model, Global Ecology and Biogeography, vol.27, issue.6, pp.639-660, 2001.
DOI : 10.1046/j.1466-822X.2001.t01-1-00250.x

N. Y. Ndour, J. L. Chotte, E. Pate, D. Masse, and C. Rouland, Natural and improved fallows in tropical semi-arid zone (Sénégal) : variations in soil enzyme activities, Applied Soil Ecology, vol.18, pp.229-238, 2001.

R. J. Manlay, M. Kaïre, D. Masse, J. L. Chotte, G. Ciorneï et al., Carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus allocation in agro-ecosystems of a West African savanna, Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment, vol.88, issue.3, pp.215-232, 2002.
DOI : 10.1016/S0167-8809(01)00218-3

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-01419622

R. J. Manlay, J. L. Chotte, D. Masse, J. Y. Laurent, and C. Feller, Carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus allocation in agro-ecosystems of a West African savanna, Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment, vol.88, issue.3, pp.249-269, 2002.
DOI : 10.1016/S0167-8809(01)00220-1

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-01419622

D. Masse, E. Pate, N. Ndiaye-faye, and P. Cadet, Effect of fallow improvement on the nematode community in the Sudanian region of Senegal, European Journal of Soil Biology, vol.38, issue.2, pp.205-211, 2002.
DOI : 10.1016/S1164-5563(02)01149-4

H. Founoune, R. Duponnois, J. M. Meyer, J. Thioulouse, D. Masse et al., Interactions between ectomycorrhizal symbiosis and fluorescent pseudomonads on Acacia holosericea: isolation of mycorrhiza helper bacteria (MHB) from a Soudano-Sahelian soil, FEMS Microbiology Ecology, vol.41, issue.1, pp.1-10, 2002.
DOI : 10.1111/j.1574-6941.2002.tb00964.x

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00427317

S. N. Sall, D. Masse, F. Bernhard-reversat, A. Guisse, and J. Chotte, Microbial activities during the early stage of laboratory decomposition of tropical leaf litters: the effect of interactions between litter quality and exogenous inorganic nitrogen, Biology and Fertility of Soils, vol.39, issue.2, pp.103-111, 2003.
DOI : 10.1007/s00374-003-0679-1

R. J. Manlay, A. Ickowicz, D. Masse, C. Floret, D. Richard et al., Spatial carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus budget of a village in the West African savanna???I. Element pools and structure of a mixed-farming system, Agricultural Systems, vol.79, issue.1, pp.55-81, 2004.
DOI : 10.1016/S0308-521X(03)00053-2

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-01419619

R. J. Manlay, A. Ickowicz, D. Masse, C. Floret, C. Feller et al., Spatial carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus budget in a village of the West African savanna???II. Element flows and functioning of a mixed-farming system, Agricultural Systems, vol.79, issue.1, pp.83-107, 2004.
DOI : 10.1016/S0308-521X(03)00054-4

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-01419618

D. Masse, R. J. Manlay, M. Diatta, R. Pontanier, and J. Chotte, Soil properties and plant production after short-term fallows in Senegal, Soil Use and Management, vol.36, issue.1, pp.92-95, 2004.
DOI : 10.1111/j.1475-2743.2004.tb00342.x

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-01419617

R. J. Manlay, D. Masse, T. Chevallier, A. Russell-smith, D. Friot et al., Post-fallow decomposition of woody roots in the West African savanna, Plant and Soil, vol.260, issue.1/2, pp.123-136, 2004.
DOI : 10.1023/B:PLSO.0000030176.41624.d7

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-01419616

R. Duponnois, M. Paugy, J. Thioulouse, D. Masse, and M. Lepage, Functional diversity of soil microbial community, rock phosphate dissolution and growth of Acacia seyal as influenced by grass-, litter- and soil-feeding termite nest structure amendments, Geoderma, vol.124, issue.3-4, pp.349-361, 2005.
DOI : 10.1016/j.geoderma.2004.05.012

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00427744

R. Duponnois, H. Founoune, D. Masse, and R. Pontanier, Inoculation of Acacia holosericea with ectomycorrhizal fungi in a semiarid site in Senegal: growth response and influences on the mycorrhizal soil infectivity after 2 years plantation, Forest Ecology and Management, vol.207, issue.3, pp.351-362, 2005.
DOI : 10.1016/j.foreco.2004.10.060

P. Cadet, D. Masse, and J. Thioulouse, Relationships between plant-parasitic nematode community, fallow duration and soil factors in the Sudano-Sahelian area of Senegal, Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment, vol.108, issue.4, pp.302-317, 2005.
DOI : 10.1016/j.agee.2005.01.008

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00427718

S. N. Sall, D. Masse, N. Y. Ndour, and J. Chotte, Does cropping modify the decomposition function and the diversity of the soil microbial community of tropical fallow soil?, Applied Soil Ecology, vol.31, issue.3, pp.211-219, 2006.
DOI : 10.1016/j.apsoil.2005.05.007

A. Bilgo, D. Masse, S. N. Sall, G. Serpantié, J. Chotte et al., Chemical and microbial properties of semiarid tropical soils of short-term fallows in Burkina Faso, West Africa, Biology and Fertility of Soils, vol.77, issue.3, pp.313-320, 2007.
DOI : 10.1007/s00374-006-0107-4

D. Masse, C. Cambier, A. Brauman, S. Sall, K. Assigbetsé et al., MIOR, an individual based model of the microbial process of soil organic matter decomposition, European Journal of Soil Science, 2007.

G. Freschet, D. Masse, E. Hien, S. N. Sall, and J. Chotte, Long-term evolution of organic matter from manuring practice in a tropical cultivated soil and its consequences on soil ecosystem services

D. Masse, C. Floret, R. Pontanier, S. Boukar, and L. , Amélioration du régime hydrique des vertisols dégradés du Nord Cameroun en vue de leur réhabilitation, Cahiers ORSTOM, série Pédologie, vol.28, p.2, 1993.

P. Donfack, D. Masse, S. Boukar, and L. , Réhabilitation d'un sol hardé d'origine vertisolique, Les terres Hardé. Caractérisation et réhabilitation dans le bassin du lac Tchad. Cahiers scientifiques n°11, pp.65-70, 1993.

D. Masse, P. Cadet, J. Chotte, M. Diatta, C. Floret et al., L'exploitation des jachères naturelles : un facteur compromettant son influence sur la restauration de la fertilité du milieu semi, pp.31-38, 1998.

P. Cadet, J. F. Bois, J. L. Chotte, R. Duponnois, N. N-'diaye-faye et al., Recherche de méthodes de gestion des peuplements de nématodes phytoparasites par les facteurs du sol en zone soudano, pp.261-270, 2000.

L. E. Akpo, D. Masse, and M. Grouzis, Durée de jachère et valeur pastorale de la végétation herbacée en zone soudanienne au Sénégal, Revue Elev . Méd. Vét. Pays trop, vol.55, issue.4, pp.275-283, 2002.

H. B. Nacro, D. Masse, and L. Abbadie, Effect of fallowing on soil organic matter pools and associated microbial activities in a humid savannah (Mandogara, Burkina Faso), World Journal of Agricultural Sciences, vol.2, pp.180-184, 2006.

F. Dembélé, D. Masse, and H. Yossi, Rôle des feux de brousse sur la dynamique des adventices et sur la qualité des sols au cours des premières années de jachère, dans les régions soudaniennes du Mali. Atelier "Jachère et maintien de la fertilité des sols, pp.1-4, 1997.

R. Manlay, D. Masse, M. Diatta, and M. Kaire, Ressources organiques et gestion de la fertilité du sol sur un terroir agro-pastoral de Casamance (Sénégal) Atelier "Jachère et maintien de la fertilité des sols, pp.1-4, 1997.

D. Masse, R. Manlay, L. Derouard, M. Diatta, P. Cadet et al., Influence du temps de jachère sur les propriétés du sol dans les régions semi-arides du Sénégal. Identification d'indicateurs de fertilité des sols. Poster, actes du congrès mondial de science du sol, pp.20-26, 1998.

D. Masse, D. Agniel, K. Da-conceição-silva, E. H. Faye, S. Sogoba et al., Biomasse racinaire des ligneux dans des jachères naturelles et agro-forestières au Mali et au Sénégal, La jachère en Afrique tropicale. Rôles, aménagements, alternatives (poster). Actes du séminaire international, pp.13-16, 1999.

R. J. Manlay, A. Ickowicz, D. Masse, C. Floret, D. Richard et al., Bilans spatialisés de carbone, d'azote et de phosphore d'un terroir de savane Ouest-Africaine ? I. Stocks d'éléments et structure d'un système agropastoral. Communication Colloque InternationalInfluences de la gestion de la biomasse sur l'érosion et la séquestration du carbone, pp.23-28, 2002.

D. Masse, J. Chotte, and R. Pontanier, Bio-indicators of land quality in the tropics : an attempt to integrate soil and vegetation approaches, Oral communication 17 th Word Congress of Soil Science, 2002.

R. J. Manlay, A. Ickowicz, D. Masse, C. Feller, and D. Richard, Bilans spatialisés de carbone, d'azote et de phosphore d'un terroir de savane Ouest-Africaine ? II. Flux d'éléments et fonctionnement d'un système agro-pastoral. Communication Colloque InternationalInfluences de la gestion de la biomasse sur l'érosion et la séquestration du carbone, pp.23-28, 2002.

K. Assigbetsé, R. Duponnois, J. Thioulouse, D. Masse, and J. L. Chotte, La gestion de la symbiose mycorhizienne associée à des essences ligneuses: un outil pour optimiser les processus de réhabilitation des sols dégradésen milieu tropical, Les VIIIèmes Journées Scientifiques du Réseau "Biotechnologies, Amélioration des Plantes et Sécurité Alimentaire". 9-14 octobre, 2002.

D. Masse, C. Cambier, A. Brauman, S. Sall, and J. Chotte, Mior : simulation des processus microbiens de la décomposition des matières organiques par un système multi-agents. Atelier PNBC 26-27 février, 2004.

D. Masse, Modélisation en Agronomie et Ecologie, Conférence CRESA Niamey. Mars, 2005.

D. Masse, Changement d'usage des terres. Défis pour l'agriculture et la gestion des ressources naturelles, Conférence Centre Culturel Français. Exposition Sciences au Sud, p.27, 2005.

H. B. Nacro, D. Masse, and L. Abbadie, Effect of fallowing on carbon sequestration in a humid tropical sandy soil (Mangodara, Burkina Faso Management of Tropical Sandy Soils for Sustainable Agriculture. A Holistic Approach for Sustainable Development of Problem Soils in the Tropics, Proceedings of the International Congress, pp.282-285, 2005.

E. Blanchart, A. Albrecht, M. Bernoux, A. Brauman, J. L. Chotte et al., Organic matter and biofunctioning in tropical sandy soils and implications for its management Management of Tropical Sandy Soils for Sustainable Agriculture. A Holistic Approach for Sustainable Development of Problem Soils in the Tropics, Proceedings of the International Congress, pp.224-241, 2005.

D. Masse, C. Cambier, A. Brauman, S. Sall, K. Assigbetsé et al., Modèle individu-centré des processus microbiens de la minéralisation des matières organiques dans un espace à 3 dimensions, Poster. Colloque « Les Matières organiques en France. Etat de l'art et prospectives ». INRA-CNRS-INSU-IUSS. 22-24 Janvier, 2006.

D. Masse, Recyclage des déchets urbains solides dans les zones agricoles périurbaines de Ouagadougou Bio-indicateurs de qualité des sols et compostage des résidus organiques. Communication à l'atelier de lancement du projet FSP « Recyclage des déchets urbains comme fertilisants en agriculture urbaine et péri-urbaine, pp.18-19, 2006.

M. Bernoux, D. Masse, M. Pansu, R. Manlay, and J. Chotte, Carbon Sequestration and Soil Bio-Functioning (UR SeqBio, IRD). Modelling C & N cycles at different scales, Poster. COST, vol.631, pp.20-22, 2006.

A. Diagabaté, D. Masse, T. Kaboré, and M. Barry, Déterminants de la qualité de la fumure organique utilisée dans la zone soudano-sahélienne : cas du terroir de Ziga dans la Province de Yatenga au Burkina Faso, FRSIT 2006 « Valorisation et vulgarisation des résultats de la recherche, des inventions et des innovations au profit des populations, 2006.

W. T. Kaboré, D. Masse, E. Hien, P. Dugué, and M. Lepage, Organic inputs and water conservation practices in Yatenga, Burkina Faso, Keys of the sustainable development of farming systems? International Conference Agricultural Innovation in Dryland Africa (AIDA) : What are the key drivers for success ? Accra (Ghana), pp.22-24, 2007.

K. Bothiè, Végétation postculturale en zone soudanienne du Sénégal, Thèse de Doctorat Université de Corse, Corte. (Participation à 40%), 1998.

. Sarr-makhfouss-sénégal, Étude écologique des peuplements de termites dans les jachères et dans les cultures en zone soudano-sahélienne au Sénégal, Thèse 3 ème cycle, 1999.

K. Maguette, La production ligneuse des jachères et son utilisation par l'homme au Sénégal, Thèse Doctorat Université Aix Marseille. (Participation à 20%), 1999.

M. Raphaël, Organic matter dynamics in mixed-farming systems of the West African savanna: a village case study from south Senegal, Thèse de Doctorat, 2000.

S. Saïdou, Importance des relationsRésidus végétaux-Communautés microbienne" sur les processus de décomposition dans un sol ferrugineux tropical (Sénégal), Thèse de doctorat, 2004.

B. Ablassé, Statut organo-minéral et biologique des sols dans les systèmes culture jachère naturelle de courte durée ou améliorée à Andropogon gayanus Kunth. Cas de Bondoukuy en zone sud soudanienne du Burkina Faso, Burkina Faso, 2005.

S. Youl, Dynamique du carbone d'un terroir de savane d'Afrique de l'Ouest : approche par la modélisation multi-agent

K. Théodore, Valorisation des déchets urbains dans les systèmes de production agricole au Burkina Faso. Relation entre la qualité biochimique des composts et leur utilisation en agriculture

F. Virginie, Valorisation agricole des déchets urbains Qualité des matières organiques et services écosystèmiques des sols, Ecole Supérieure des Sciences Agronomiques. Université d'Antananarivo. Soutenance prévue en, 2009.

B. Mahamadou, Modélisation informatique de systèmes complexes : le modèle MIROT de flux de carbone à l'échelle d'un terroir agricole, 2003.

. Massa-alioune and . Badara, Modélisation informatique de systèmes complexes : le modèle MIOR des processus microbiens de la dynamique des matières organiques dans les sols, 2003.

O. Maxime, Impact des herbacées sur le fonctionnement microbien du sol, Ingénieur Institut du Développement Rural, 2003.

K. Théodore, Evaluation des propriétés physico-chimiques et biologiques des sols amendés par des déchets urbains solides, Ingénieur Institut du Développement Rural, 2004.

B. Christophe, Impact environnemental de l'épandage des déchets urbains solides sur les cultures céréalières de la zone péri-urbaine de Ouagadougou. Licence IUP Génie de l'Environnement, 2004.

K. Théodore and C. Niamey, Usage des fumures organiques dans les systèmes de culture et viabilité des agro-systèmes en zone soudano-sahélienne : cas du zaï à Ziga dans le Yatenga (Burkina Faso) Mastère CNEARC Diabagaté Amadou, 2006.

G. Freschet, Effet résiduel de la pratique de parcage sur des services écosystémiques d'un sol tropical (Burkina Faso) Master II Fenec, 2006.

U. Projet and F. Viii, Recherche sur l'amélioration et la gestion de la jachère en Afrique de l'Ouest, Budget 3M?, 1994.

L. Abbadie, A. Mariotti, and J. C. Menaut, Independence of Savanna Grasses from Soil Organic Matter for Their Nitrogen Supply, Ecology, vol.73, issue.2, pp.608-613, 1992.
DOI : 10.2307/1940766

D. A. Angers and S. Recous, Decomposition of wheat straw and rye residues as affected by particle size, Plant and Soil, vol.189, issue.2, pp.197-203, 1997.
DOI : 10.1023/A:1004207219678

K. Assigbetsé, M. Gueye, J. Thioulouse, and R. Duponnois, Soil Bacterial Diversity Responses to Root Colonization by an Ectomycorrhizal Fungus are not Root-Growth-Dependent, Microbial Ecology, vol.94, issue.4, pp.350-359, 2005.
DOI : 10.1007/s00248-004-0229-x

C. Barnier, Impact environnemental de l'épandage des déchets urbains solides sur les cultures céréalières de la zone périurbaine de Ouagadougou. Licence, 2004.

G. D. Bending and M. K. Turner, Interaction of biochemical quality and particle size of crop residues and its effect on the microbial biomass and nitrogen dynamics following incorporation into soil, Biology and Fertility of Soils, vol.29, issue.3, pp.319-327, 1999.
DOI : 10.1007/s003740050559

A. Bilgo, Statut organo-minéral et biologique des sols dans les systèmes culture-jachère naturelle de courte durée ou améliorée à Andropogon gayanus Kunth. Cas de Bondoukuy en zone sud soudanienne du Burkina Faso, 2005.

A. Bilgo, D. Masse, S. Sall, G. Serpantié, J. Chotte et al., Chemical and microbial properties of semiarid tropical soils of short-term fallows in Burkina Faso, West Africa, Biology and Fertility of Soils, vol.77, issue.3, pp.1-8, 2006.
DOI : 10.1007/s00374-006-0107-4

F. Bousquet and C. Le-page, Multi-agent simulations and ecosystem management: a review, Ecological Modelling, vol.176, issue.3-4, pp.313-332, 2004.
DOI : 10.1016/j.ecolmodel.2004.01.011

L. Brussaard, Soil fauna, guilds, functional groups and ecosystem processes, Applied Soil Ecology, vol.9, issue.1-3, pp.123-135, 1998.
DOI : 10.1016/S0929-1393(98)00066-3

L. Brussaard and R. Ferrera-cerrato, Soil ecology in sustainable agricultural systems, 1997.
DOI : 10.1201/9781420049237

P. Cadet and C. Floret, An initial study of fallow periods on the nematode community in the Soudanese-Sahelian zone of Senegal, Acta Oecologica, vol.16, pp.77-88, 1995.

P. Cadet, D. Masse, and J. Thioulouse, Relationships between plant-parasitic nematode community, fallow duration and soil factors in the Sudano-Sahelian area of Senegal, Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment, vol.108, issue.4, pp.302-317, 2005.
DOI : 10.1016/j.agee.2005.01.008

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00427718

L. M. Carvalho, P. M. Correia, R. J. Ryel, and A. Martins-loução, Spatial variability of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal spores in two natural plant communities, Plant and Soil, vol.251, issue.2, pp.227-236, 2003.
DOI : 10.1023/A:1023016317269

W. Cheng, D. W. Johnson, and S. Fuc, Rhizosphere Effects on Decomposition, Soil Science Society of America Journal, vol.67, issue.5, pp.1418-1427, 2003.
DOI : 10.2136/sssaj2003.1418

C. Chenu and G. Stotzky, Interactions between microorganisms and soil particles: an overview. In: Interactions between Soil Particles and Microorganisms, pp.3-40, 2002.

J. Chotte, R. Duponnois, P. Cadet, C. Adiko, C. Villenave et al., Jachère et biologie du sol en Afrique tropicale, La Jachère en Afrique tropicale. De la jachère naturelle à la jachère améliorée. Le point des connaissances Floret & R. Pontanier), pp.95-121, 2000.

J. L. Chotte, J. N. Ladd, and M. Amato, Sites of microbial assimilation, and turnover of soluble and particulate 14C-labelled substrates decomposing in a clay soil, Soil Biology and Biochemistry, vol.30, issue.2, pp.205-218, 1997.
DOI : 10.1016/S0038-0717(97)00115-6

M. D. Corre, R. R. Schnabel, and W. L. Stout, Spatial and seasonal variation of gross nitrogen transformations and microbial biomass in a Northeastern US grassland, Soil Biology and Biochemistry, vol.34, issue.4, pp.445-457, 2002.
DOI : 10.1016/S0038-0717(01)00198-5

B. P. Degens and J. A. Harris, Development of a physiological approach to measuring the catabolic diversity of soil microbial communities, Soil Biology and Biochemistry, vol.29, issue.9-10, pp.1309-1320, 1997.
DOI : 10.1016/S0038-0717(97)00076-X

F. Dembélé, Influence du feu et du pâturage sur la végétation et la biodiversité dans les jachères en zone soudanienne-nord du Mali: Cas des jeunes jachères du terroir de Missira, 1996.

O. Dilly, J. Bloem, A. Vos, and J. C. Munch, Bacterial Diversity in Agricultural Soils during Litter Decomposition, Applied and Environmental Microbiology, vol.70, issue.1, pp.468-474, 2004.
DOI : 10.1128/AEM.70.1.468-474.2004

J. Dixon, A. Gulliver, and D. Gibbon, Farming Systems and Poverty : Improving Farmers' Livelihoods in a Changing World, 2001.

L. M. Donnison, G. S. Griffith, and R. D. Bardgett, Determinants of fungal growth and activity in botanically diverse haymeadows: effects of litter type and fertilizer additions, Soil Biology and Biochemistry, vol.32, issue.2, pp.289-294, 2000.
DOI : 10.1016/S0038-0717(99)00160-1

C. H. Ettema and D. A. Wardle, Spatial soil ecology, Trends in Ecology & Evolution, vol.17, issue.4, pp.177-183, 2002.
DOI : 10.1016/S0169-5347(02)02496-5

F. Fall, M. Sarr, C. Rouland, A. Agboba, and A. Brauman, Effet de l'âge de la jachère et de la saison surla densité et la diversité des termites (Haute-Casamance, Sénégal) In: La jachère en Afrique tropicale, Floret & R. Pontanier), pp.259-267, 2000.

S. Fall, S. Nazaret, J. L. Chotte, and A. Brauman, Bacterial Density and Community Structure Associated with Aggregate Size Fractions of Soil-Feeding Termite Mounds, Microbial Ecology, vol.6, issue.2, pp.191-199, 2004.
DOI : 10.1007/s00248-003-1047-2

C. Feller, J. Balesdent, B. Nicolardot, and C. C. Cerri, Approaching "functional" soil organic matter pools through particle-size fractionation. Examples for tropical soils In: Assessment methods for soil carbon, pp.53-67, 2000.

C. Feller and M. H. Beare, Physical control of soil organic matter dynamics in the tropics, Geoderma, vol.79, issue.1-4, pp.69-116, 1997.
DOI : 10.1016/S0016-7061(97)00039-6

C. Floret and R. Pontanier, La Jachère en Afrique tropicale. De la jachère naturelle à la jachère améliorée. Le point des connaissances, 2000.

H. Founoune, R. Duponnois, A. M. Bâ, S. Sall, I. Branget et al., Mycorrhiza Helper Bacteria stimulate ectomycorrhizal symbiosis of Acacia holosericea with Pisolithus alba, New Phytologist, vol.173, issue.1, pp.81-89, 2002.
DOI : 10.1046/j.0028-646X.2001.00284.x

A. Fournier, C. Floret, and G. M. Gnahoua, Végétation des jachères et succession post-culturale en Afrique tropicale, La jachère en Afrique tropicale. De la jachère naturelle à la jachère améliorée. Le point des connaissances, pp.123-168, 2000.

C. Francou, Stabilisation de la matière organique au cours du compostage de déchets urbains : Influence de lanature des déchets et du procédé de compostage -Recherche d'indicateurs pertinents, 2003.

R. B. Franklin and A. L. Mills, Multi-scale variation in spatial heterogeneity for microbial community structure in an eastern Virginia agricultural field, FEMS Microbiology Ecology, vol.44, issue.3, pp.335-346, 2003.
DOI : 10.1016/S0168-6496(03)00074-6

G. Freschet, Effet résiduel de la pratique de parcage sur des services écosystémiques d'un sol tropical (Burkina Faso). Master, 2006.

G. Freschet, D. Masse, E. Hien, S. N. Sall, and J. Chotte, in press. Long-term evolution of organic matter from manuring practice in a tropical cultivated soil and its consequences on soil ecosystem services, Agriculture, Ecosystem and Environnement

V. Gaillard, C. Chenu, and S. Recous, Carbon mineralisation in soil adjacent to plant residues of contrasting biochemical quality, Soil Biology and Biochemistry, vol.35, issue.1, pp.93-99, 2003.
DOI : 10.1016/S0038-0717(02)00241-9

J. Gignoux, J. House, D. Hall, D. Masse, H. B. Nacro et al., Design and test of a generic cohort model of soil organic matter decomposition: the SOMKO model, Global Ecology and Biogeography, vol.27, issue.6, pp.639-660, 2001.
DOI : 10.1046/j.1466-822X.2001.t01-1-00250.x

K. E. Giller, E. C. Rowe, N. De-ridder, and H. Van-keulen, Resource use dynamics and interactions in the tropics: Scaling up in space and time, Agricultural Systems, vol.88, issue.1, pp.8-27, 2006.
DOI : 10.1016/j.agsy.2005.06.016

V. Ginot, L. Page, C. Souissi, and S. , A multi-agents architecture to enhance end-user individual-based modelling, Ecological Modelling, vol.157, issue.1, pp.23-41, 2002.
DOI : 10.1016/S0304-3800(02)00211-9

P. Goovaerts and C. N. Chiang, Spatial and temporal relationships between potentially mineralizable N and selected soil properties in a small fallow plot, pp.21-37, 1992.

F. Goreaud, M. Loreau, and C. Millier, Spatial structure and the survival of an inferior competitor: a theoretical model of neighbourhood competition in plants, Ecological Modelling, vol.158, issue.1-2, pp.1-19, 2002.
DOI : 10.1016/S0304-3800(02)00058-3

D. A. Griffith and P. R. Peres-neto, SPATIAL MODELING IN ECOLOGY: THE FLEXIBILITY OF EIGENFUNCTION SPATIAL ANALYSES, Ecology, vol.87, issue.10, pp.2603-2613, 2006.
DOI : 10.2307/2413147

G. L. Grundmann and D. Debouzie, Geostatistical analysis of the distribution of NH4+ and NO2???-oxidizing bacteria and serotypes at the millimeter scale along a soil transect, FEMS Microbiology Ecology, vol.34, issue.1, pp.57-62, 2000.
DOI : 10.1016/S0168-6496(00)00074-X

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00427087

G. L. Grundmann, A. Dechesne, F. Bartoli, J. P. Flandrois, J. L. Chasse et al., Spatial Modeling of Nitrifier Microhabitats in Soil, Soil Science Society of America Journal, vol.65, issue.6, pp.1709-1716, 2001.
DOI : 10.2136/sssaj2001.1709

L. G. Grundmann and F. Gourbiere, A micro-sampling approach to improve the inventory of bacterial diversity in soil, Applied Soil Ecology, vol.13, issue.2, pp.123-126, 1999.
DOI : 10.1016/S0929-1393(99)00027-X

G. Han, G. Zhou, Z. Xu, Y. Yang, J. Liu et al., Biotic and abiotic factors controlling the spatial and temporal variation of soil respiration in an agricultural ecosystem, Soil Biology and Biochemistry, vol.39, issue.2, pp.418-425, 2007.
DOI : 10.1016/j.soilbio.2006.08.009

C. He, S. B. Malcolm, K. A. Dahlberg, and B. Fu, A conceptual framework for integrating hydrological and biological indicators into watershed management, Landscape and Urban Planning, vol.49, issue.1-2, pp.25-34, 2000.
DOI : 10.1016/S0169-2046(00)00047-5

W. Kaboré, Usage des fumures organiques dans les systèmes de culture et viabilité des agro-systèmes en zone soudano-sahélienne : cas du zaï à Ziga dans le Yatenga, 2005.

W. T. Kaboré, Impacts de l'apport des déchets urbains solides non triés sur les potentialités agronomiques des sols : cas de l'agriculture péri-urbaine de Ouagadougou. Mémoire Fin d, 2004.

J. M. Kowal and A. H. Kassam, Agricultural Ecology of Savanna. A study of West Africa, 1978.

J. Kreft, G. Booth, and J. W. Wimpenny, BacSim, a simulator for individual-based modelling of bacterial colony growth, Microbiology, vol.144, issue.12, pp.3275-3287, 1998.
DOI : 10.1099/00221287-144-12-3275

Y. Kuzyakov, Review: Factors affecting rhizosphere priming effects, Journal of Plant Nutrition and Soil Science, vol.165, issue.4, pp.382-396, 2002.
DOI : 10.1002/1522-2624(200208)165:4<382::AID-JPLN382>3.0.CO;2-#

P. Lavelle, Faunal Activities and Soil Processes: Adaptive Strategies That Determine Ecosystem Function, Advances in Ecological Research, vol.27, pp.93-132, 1997.
DOI : 10.1016/S0065-2504(08)60007-0

URL : http://horizon.documentation.ird.fr/exl-doc/pleins_textes/pleins_textes_6/b_fdi_45-46/010008338.pdf

P. Lavelle, E. Barros, E. Blanchart, G. Brown, T. Desjardins et al., SOM management in the tropics: Why feeding the soil macrofauna? Nutrient Cycling in Agroecosystems, pp.53-61, 2001.

P. Lavelle, E. Blanchart, A. Martin, S. Martin, A. Spain et al., A Hierarchical Model for Decomposition in Terrestrial Ecosystems: Application to Soils of the Humid Tropics, Biotropica, vol.25, issue.2, pp.130-150, 1993.
DOI : 10.2307/2389178

P. Lavelle, C. Lattaud, D. Trigo, and I. Barois, Mutualism and biodiversity in soils In: The significance and regulation of soil biodiversity, pp.23-33, 1995.

P. Lavelle, C. Villenave, C. Rouland, and L. Derouard, Dynamique des peuplements de macroinvertébrés du sol aux diverses étapes de la Jachère en Afrique Tropicale, Floret & R. Pontanier), pp.236-241, 2000.

P. Legendre and M. Fortin, Spatial pattern and ecological analysis. Vegetation, pp.107-138, 1989.

M. Loreau and R. D. Holt, Spatial Flows and the Regulation of Ecosystems, The American Naturalist, vol.163, issue.4, 2004.
DOI : 10.1086/382600

R. J. Manlay, Organic matter dynamics in mixed-farming systems of the West African savanna: a village case study from south Senegal, 2000.

R. J. Manlay, J. Chotte, D. Masse, J. Laurent, and C. Feller, Carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus allocation in agro-ecosystems of a West African savanna, Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment, vol.88, issue.3, pp.249-269, 2002.
DOI : 10.1016/S0167-8809(01)00220-1

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-01419622

R. J. Manlay, A. Ickowicz, D. Masse, C. Feller, and D. Richard, Spatial carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus budget in a village of the West African savanna???II. Element flows and functioning of a mixed-farming system, Agricultural Systems, vol.79, issue.1, pp.83-107, 2004.
DOI : 10.1016/S0308-521X(03)00054-4

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-01419618

R. J. Manlay, A. Ickowicz, D. Masse, C. Floret, D. Richard et al., Spatial carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus budget of a village in the West African savanna???I. Element pools and structure of a mixed-farming system, Agricultural Systems, vol.79, issue.1, pp.55-81, 2004.
DOI : 10.1016/S0308-521X(03)00053-2

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-01419619

R. J. Manlay, M. Kaire, D. Masse, J. Chotte, G. Ciornei et al., Carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus allocation in agro-ecosystems of a West African savanna, Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment, vol.88, issue.3, pp.215-232, 2002.
DOI : 10.1016/S0167-8809(01)00218-3

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-01419622

R. J. Manlay, D. Masse, J. Chotte, C. Feller, M. Kaire et al., Carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus allocation in agro-ecosystems of a West African savanna, Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment, vol.88, issue.3, pp.233-248, 2002.
DOI : 10.1016/S0167-8809(01)00219-5

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-01419622

P. Marschner and S. Timonen, Interactions between plant species and mycorrhizal colonization on the bacterial community composition in the rhizosphere, Applied Soil Ecology, vol.28, issue.1, pp.23-36, 2005.
DOI : 10.1016/j.apsoil.2004.06.007

D. Masse, P. Cadet, J. Chotte, M. Diatta, C. Floret et al., Jachères naturelles et restauration des propriétés des sols en zone semi-aride, pp.31-38, 1998.

D. Masse, F. Dembélé, E. Lefloc-'h, and H. Yossi, Impact de la gestion des feux de brousse sur la qualité des sols des jachères de courtes durées dans les régions soudaniennes du Mali In: Soil fertility management in West African land use systems, pp.115-122, 1997.

D. Masse, R. J. Manlay, M. Diatta, R. Pontanier, and J. Chotte, Soil organic matter dynamic and nutrients balance in a short-term fallows with different types of vegetation experiments in Senegal. Soil Use and Management, pp.92-95, 2004.

D. Masse, K. Silva-da-conceicao, M. Diatta, and I. Madinan, Végétation des jachères de courte durée et rendement du mil après défriche au Sénégal, Floret & R. Pontanier), pp.127-134, 2000.

J. C. Menaut, M. Lepage, and L. Abbadie, Savannas, woodlands and dry forests in Africa, Seasonally dry tropical forests, pp.64-92, 1995.
DOI : 10.1017/CBO9780511753398.004

P. Mordelet, S. Barot, and L. Abbadie, Root foraging strategies and soil patchiness in a humid savanna, Plant and Soil, vol.52, issue.1, pp.171-176, 1996.
DOI : 10.1007/BF00011005

R. Morel, Les sols cultivés, 1989.

M. Ndienor, Analyse des modes de gestion de la fertilisation dans les systèmes maraîchers de l'agglomération d'Antananarivo (Madagascar) Etude de l'intérêt agronomique de l'utilisation de déchets urbains dans ces systèmes, 2006.

N. Y. Ndour, J. L. Chotte, E. Pate, D. Masse, and C. Rouland, Natural and improved fallows in tropical semi-arid zone (Sénégal) : variations in soil enzyme activities, Applied Soil Ecology, vol.18, pp.229-238, 2001.

N. 'dour, Y. B. Fardoux, J. Chotte, and J. , Statut organique et microbiologique de sols ferrugineux tropicaux en jachère naturelle (Sénégal) In: La Jachère en Afrique tropicale, Floret & R. Pontanier), pp.354-360, 2000.

N. Nunan, K. Ritz, D. Crabb, K. Harris, K. Wu et al., Quantification of the in situ distribution of soil bacteria by large-scale imaging of thin sections of undisturbed soil, FEMS Microbiology Ecology, vol.37, issue.1, pp.67-77, 2001.
DOI : 10.1111/j.1574-6941.2001.tb00854.x

N. Nunan, K. Wu, I. M. Young, J. W. Crawford, and K. Ritz, In Situ Spatial Patterns of Soil Bacterial Populations, Mapped at Multiple Scales, in an Arable Soil, Microbial Ecology, vol.44, issue.4, pp.296-305, 2002.
DOI : 10.1007/s00248-002-2021-0

P. H. Nye and D. J. Greenland, The Soil under Shifting Cultivation, Soil Science, vol.92, issue.5, 1960.
DOI : 10.1097/00010694-196111000-00024

B. Ouattara, G. Serpantié, K. Ouattara, V. Hien, T. Lompo et al., Etats physico-chimiques des sols cultivables en zone cotonnière du Burkina Faso. Effets de l'histoire culturale et du type de milieu, C. Floret & R. Pontanier), pp.17-32, 1997.

E. A. Paul and F. E. Clark, Soil Microbiology and Biochemistry, 1996.

D. A. Perry, M. P. Amaranthus, J. G. Borchers, S. L. Borchers, and R. E. Brainerd, Bootstrapping in Ecosystems, BioScience, vol.39, issue.4, pp.230-237, 1989.
DOI : 10.2307/1311159

G. L. Perry, B. P. Miller, and N. J. Enright, A comparison of methods for the statistical analysis of spatial point patterns in plant ecology, Plant Ecology, vol.50, issue.1, pp.59-82, 2006.
DOI : 10.1007/s11258-006-9133-4

E. Personeni, A. Luscher, and P. Loiseau, Rhizosphere activity, grass species and N availability effects on the soil C and N cycles, Soil Biology and Biochemistry, vol.37, issue.5, pp.819-827, 2005.
DOI : 10.1016/j.soilbio.2004.08.012

J. M. Powell, S. Fernandez-rivera, P. Hiernaux, and M. D. Turner, Nutrient cycling in integrated rangeland/cropland systems of the Sahel, Agricultural Systems, vol.52, issue.2-3, pp.143-170, 1996.
DOI : 10.1016/0308-521X(96)00009-1

L. Ranjard, E. Brothier, and S. Nazaret, Sequencing Bands of Ribosomal Intergenic Spacer Analysis Fingerprints for Characterization and Microscale Distribution of Soil Bacterium Populations Responding to Mercury Spiking, Applied and Environmental Microbiology, vol.66, issue.12, pp.5334-5339, 2000.
DOI : 10.1128/AEM.66.12.5334-5339.2000

E. Roose and B. Barthes, Organic matter management for soil conservation and productivity restoration in Africa: a contribution from Francophone research, Nutrient Cycling in Agroecosystems, vol.61, pp.159-170, 2001.
DOI : 10.1007/978-94-017-2172-1_15

E. C. Rowe, M. T. Van-wijk, N. De-ridder, and K. E. Giller, Nutrient allocation strategies across a simplified heterogeneous African smallholder farm, Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment, vol.116, issue.1-2, pp.60-71, 2006.
DOI : 10.1016/j.agee.2006.03.019

S. Roy and J. S. Singh, Seasonal and spatial dynamics of plant-available N and P pools and N-mineralization in relation to fine roots in a dry tropical forest habitat, Soil Biology and Biochemistry, vol.27, issue.1, pp.33-40, 1995.
DOI : 10.1016/0038-0717(94)00138-Q

S. N. Sall, Importance des relationsRésidus végétaux-Communautés microbiennes" sur les processus de décomposition dans un sol ferrugineux tropical (Sénégal) : effet de la disponibilité de l'azote, 2004.

S. N. Sall, D. Masse, F. Bernhard-reversat, A. Guisse, and J. Chotte, Microbial activities during the early stage of laboratory decomposition of tropical leaf litters: the effect of interactions between litter quality and exogenous inorganic nitrogen, Biology and Fertility of Soils, vol.39, issue.2, pp.103-111, 2003.
DOI : 10.1007/s00374-003-0679-1

S. N. Sall, D. Masse, N. Y. Ndour, and J. Chotte, Does cropping modify the decomposition function and the diversity of the soil microbial community of tropical fallow soil?, Applied Soil Ecology, vol.31, issue.3, pp.211-219, 2006.
DOI : 10.1016/j.apsoil.2005.05.007

O. Samake, E. M. Smaling, M. J. Kropff, T. J. Stomph, and A. Kodio, Effects of cultivation practices on spatial variation of soil fertility and millet yields in the Sahel of Mali, Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment, vol.109, issue.3-4, pp.335-345, 2005.
DOI : 10.1016/j.agee.2005.02.024

M. Sarr, A. Agboba, and A. Smith, Abondance et diversité des termites dans les jachères sahéliennes. Effets des termites et autres macrofaunes du sol sur l'infiltration de l'eau, La jachère en Afrique tropicale. Rôles, Aménagements, Alternatives. (eds C. Floret & R. Pontanier), pp.242-249, 2000.

M. Sarr, C. Agbogba, and A. Russell-smith, The effects of length of fallow and cultivation on termite abundance and diversity in the sahelian zone of Senegal : A preliminary note, Pedobiologia, vol.42, pp.56-62, 1998.

J. P. Schimel and J. Bennett, NITROGEN MINERALIZATION: CHALLENGES OF A CHANGING PARADIGM, Ecology, vol.85, issue.3, pp.591-602, 2004.
DOI : 10.1007/BF01814901

K. D. Shepherd, C. A. Palm, C. N. Gachengo, and B. Vanlauwe, Rapid Characterization of Organic Resource Quality for Soil and Livestock Management in Tropical Agroecosystems Using Near-Infrared Spectroscopy, Agronomy Journal, vol.95, issue.5, pp.1314-1322, 2003.
DOI : 10.2134/agronj2003.1314

K. D. Shepherd and M. G. Walsh, Review: Infrared spectroscopy??enabling an evidence- based diagnostic surveillance approach to agricultural and environmental management in developing countries, Journal of Near Infrared Spectroscopy, vol.15, issue.2, pp.1-20, 2007.
DOI : 10.1255/jnirs.716

J. Sierra, Nitrogen mineralisation and its error of estimation under field conditions related to the light-fraction soil organic matter, Australian Journal of Soil Research, vol.34, issue.5, pp.755-767, 1996.
DOI : 10.1071/SR9960755

J. Six, H. Bossuyt, S. Degryze, and K. Denef, A history of research on the link between (micro)aggregates, soil biota, and soil organic matter dynamics. Soil and Tillage Research, pp.7-31, 2004.

J. Six, E. T. Elliott, and K. Paustian, Soil macroaggregate turnover and microaggregate formation: a mechanism for C sequestration under no-tillage agriculture, Soil Biology and Biochemistry, vol.32, issue.14, pp.2099-2103, 2000.
DOI : 10.1016/S0038-0717(00)00179-6

B. Söderström, E. Baath, and B. Lundgren, Decrease in soil microbial activity and biomasses owing to nitrogen amendments, Canadian Journal of Microbiology, vol.29, issue.11, pp.1500-1506, 1983.
DOI : 10.1139/m83-231

C. H. Stark, L. M. Condron, A. Stewart, H. J. Di, and M. O-'callaghan, Small-scale spatial variability of selected soil biological properties, Soil Biology and Biochemistry, vol.36, issue.4, pp.601-608, 2004.
DOI : 10.1016/j.soilbio.2003.12.005

M. J. Swift, L'intégration de la société, des systèmes et des sols, 16ème Congrès mondial de science du sol, 1998.

H. Tiessen, E. Cuevas, and N. Chacon, The role of soil organic matter in sustaining soil fertility, Nature, vol.371, issue.6500, pp.783-785, 1994.
DOI : 10.1038/371783a0

D. Tilman, The greening of the green revolution, Nature, vol.396, issue.6708, pp.211-212, 1998.
DOI : 10.1038/24254

D. Tilman and J. A. Downing, Biodiversity and stability in grasslands, Nature, vol.367, issue.6461, pp.363-365, 1994.
DOI : 10.1038/367363a0

J. M. Tisdall and J. M. Oades, Organic matter and water-stable aggregates in soils, Journal of Soil Science, vol.29, issue.2, pp.141-163, 1982.
DOI : 10.1111/j.1365-2389.1982.tb01755.x

P. Tittonell, P. A. Leffelaar, B. Vanlauwe, M. T. Van-wijk, and K. E. Giller, Exploring diversity of crop and soil management within smallholder African farms: A dynamic model for simulation of N balances and use efficiencies at field scale, Agricultural Systems, vol.91, issue.1-2, pp.71-101, 2006.
DOI : 10.1016/j.agsy.2006.01.010

P. Tittonell, B. Vanlauwe, N. De-ridder, and K. E. Giller, In press. Heterogeneity of crop productivity and resource use efficiency within smallholder Kenyan farms: Soil fertility gradients or management intensity gradients?, Agricultural Systems

P. Tittonell, B. Vanlauwe, P. A. Leffelaar, E. C. Rowe, and K. E. Giller, Exploring diversity in soil fertility management of smallholder farms in western Kenya, Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment, vol.110, issue.3-4, pp.149-165, 2005.
DOI : 10.1016/j.agee.2005.04.001

P. Tittonell, B. Vanlauwe, P. A. Leffelaar, K. D. Shepherd, and K. E. Giller, Exploring diversity in soil fertility management of smallholder farms in western Kenya, Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment, vol.110, issue.3-4, pp.166-184, 2005.
DOI : 10.1016/j.agee.2005.04.003

D. S. Treves, B. C. Xia, J. Zhou, and J. M. Tiedje, A Two-Species Test of the Hypothesis That Spatial Isolation Influences Microbial Diversity in Soil, Microbial Ecology, vol.45, issue.1, pp.20-28, 2003.
DOI : 10.1007/s00248-002-1044-x

R. Vargas and T. Hattori, Protozoan predation of bacterial cells in soil aggregates, FEMS Microbiology Letters, vol.38, issue.4, pp.233-242, 1986.
DOI : 10.1111/j.1574-6968.1986.tb01733.x

L. Vieublé-gonod, C. Chenu, and G. Soulas, Spatial variability of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) mineralisation potential at a millimetre scale in soil, Soil Biology and Biochemistry, vol.35, issue.3, pp.373-382, 2003.
DOI : 10.1016/S0038-0717(02)00287-0

C. Villenave and P. Cadet, Rôle particulier de Heliconthylenchus dihystera au sein des peuplements de nématodes phytoparasites (Sénégal) In: La Jachère en Afrique tropicale, Floret & R. Pontanier), pp.291-299, 2000.

J. Vogel, P. Normand, J. Thioulouse, X. Nesme, and G. Grundmann, Relationship between Spatial and Genetic Distance in Agrobacterium spp. in 1 Cubic Centimeter of Soil, Applied and Environmental Microbiology, vol.69, issue.3, pp.1482-1487, 2003.
DOI : 10.1128/AEM.69.3.1482-1487.2003

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00427492

D. K. Wijesinghe and M. J. Hutchings, : the interactions between patch contrast and patch scale, Journal of Ecology, vol.85, issue.5, pp.860-872, 1999.
DOI : 10.1046/j.1365-2745.1999.00395.x

D. K. Wijesinghe, E. A. John, and M. J. Hutchings, Does pattern of soil resource heterogeneity determine plant community structure? An experimental investigation, Journal of Ecology, vol.85, issue.1, pp.99-112, 2005.
DOI : 10.1111/j.1365-2745.2001.00618.x

P. L. Woomer and M. J. Swift, The biological management of tropical soil fertility, 1994.

I. M. Young and J. W. Crawford, Interactions and Self-Organization in the Soil-Microbe Complex, Science, vol.304, issue.5677, pp.1634-1637, 2004.
DOI : 10.1126/science.1097394