Abstract : The Virgo detector for gravitational waves is a laser interferometer with three kilometers long arms. It has now reached a sensitivity that have allowed to conduct the first science data taking in conjonction with other interferometers worldwide since May 2007. Among the most promising gravitational wave sources for this network are binary systems of compact objects. The gravitational radiation emited by these sources is theoretically well established. This allows to define templates with which the data can be filtered so as to extract a physical signal that may be present in the data even if its amplitude is very weak. The work described in this thesis focuses on different aspects of the search for binary systems.
The present sensitivity of the Virgo detector was reached after a commissionning period which was punctuated with several periods of data taking. We analyze data taken since August 2005 focusing our atention on the search for neutron star binary systems. We mainly concentrate our attention on the notion of data quality. This leads us to define methods to exclude events produced by noisy behavior of the detector. The understanding of these noise sources sometimes translates in an improvment of the detector.
The method used for neutron star searches may be not be adapted for a search of higher mass systems including one or two black holes. We study this point and take into consideration two different strategies to search efficiently for high mass binary systems. The first one is based on a detection template family which performances are investigated in the context of a detector at nominal sensitivity. The second one relies on the use of templates especially designed to describe black hole binaries evolution. Technical studies necessary to conduct searches using these templates are discused.
The last point concerns the search for binary systems in a network of detectors. Using simulated data, we present results that show that introducing a new reference time for coalescing binary events allows to improve the precision of source position reconstruction.