I. Annexe, Séquences de la Cytochrome Oxydase II (ADN mitochondrial) d'A. vulgare Les séquences comprennent la région 3' de la cytochrome oxydase II et une région non/ codante, Lescodons/stopsontindiquésengrisé

. Paire-de-loci-av1, Av2 Av1

C. Bandi, A. Dunn, G. Hurst, and T. Rigaud, Inherited microorganisms, sex-specific virulence and reproductive parasitism, Trends in Parasitology, vol.17, issue.2, pp.88-94, 2001.
DOI : 10.1016/S1471-4922(00)01812-2

T. Kocher, W. Thomas, and A. Meyer, Dynamics of mitochondrial DNA evolution in animals: amplification and sequencing with conserved primers., Proceedings of the National Academy Sciences of the USA, pp.6196-6200, 1989.
DOI : 10.1073/pnas.86.16.6196

I. Marcadé, C. Souty-grosset, D. Bouchon, T. Rigaud, and R. Raimond, Mitochondrial DNA variability and Wolbachia infection in two sibling woodlice species, Heredity, vol.83, issue.1, pp.71-78, 1999.
DOI : 10.1038/sj.hdy.6885380

M. Raymond and F. Rousset, GENEPOP (Version 1.2): Population Genetics Software for Exact Tests and Ecumenicism, Journal of Heredity, vol.86, issue.3, pp.248-249, 1995.
DOI : 10.1093/oxfordjournals.jhered.a111573

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/halsde-00186383

T. Rigaud, D. Bouchon, C. Souty-grosset, and R. Raimond, Mitochondrial DNA polymorphism, sex ratio distorters and population genetics in the isopod Armadillidium vulgare, Genetics, vol.152, pp.1669-1677, 1999.

J. Werren, O. Sneill, S. Hoffman, A. Werren, and J. , The evolution of heritable symbionts In: Influential Passengers: Inherited Microorganisms and Arthropod Reproduction, 1997.

T. D. Kocher, W. K. Thomas, A. Meyer, S. V. Edwards, S. Pääbo et al., Dynamics of mitochondrial DNA evolution in animals: amplification and sequencing with conserved primers., Proceedings of National Academic Science of, pp.6196-2000, 1989.
DOI : 10.1073/pnas.86.16.6196

F. Mead, La Place De L'Accouplement Dans Le Cycle De Reproduction Des Isopodes Terrestres (Oniscoidea), Crustaceana, vol.31, issue.1, pp.27-41, 1976.
DOI : 10.1163/156854076X00747

J. P. Mocquard, P. Juchault, and C. Souty-grosset, The role of environmental factors (temperature and photoperiod) in the reproduction of the terrestrial isopod Armadillidium vulgare (Latreille, 1804), Monitore Zoologico Italiano Monographia, vol.4, pp.455-475, 1989.

J. Moreau and T. Rigaud, Operational sex ratio in terrestrial isopods: interaction between potential rate of reproduction and Wolbachia-induced sex ratio distortion, Oikos, vol.91, issue.3, pp.477-484, 2000.
DOI : 10.1034/j.1600-0706.2000.910308.x

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00123846

?. , A. Bertin, Y. Caubet, and T. Rigaud, Sexual selection in an isopod with Wolbachia-induced sex reversal: males prefer real females, Journal of Evolutionary Biology, vol.14, pp.388-394, 2001.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00123775

?. , S. Seguin, Y. Caubet, and T. Rigaud, Female re-mating pattern differs after recent and ancient copulation in the terrestrial crustacean Armadillidium vulgare, Animal Behaviour, vol.64, pp.569-577, 2002.

D. C. Quellar, J. E. Strassman, and C. R. Hughes, Microsatellites and kinship, Trends in Ecology & Evolution, vol.8, issue.8, pp.285-288, 1993.
DOI : 10.1016/0169-5347(93)90256-O

S. Verne, N. Puillandre, G. Brunet, N. Gouin, P. B. Samollow et al., Characterization of polymorphic microsatellite loci in the terrestrial isopod Armadillidium vulgare, Molecular Ecology Notes, vol.133, issue.2, pp.328-330, 2006.
DOI : 10.1038/sj.hdy.6800482

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00078079

M. R. Warburg, Evolutionary Biology of Land Isopods, 1993.
DOI : 10.1007/978-3-662-21889-1

R. Cordaux, R. Michel-salzat, A. Frelon-raimond, M. Rigaud, T. Bouchon et al., Evidence for a new feminizing Wolbachia strain in the isopod Armadillidium vulgare: evolutionary implications, Heredity, vol.93, issue.1, pp.78-84, 2004.
DOI : 10.1038/sj.hdy.6800482

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00121257

M. Hamilton, E. Pincus, D. Fiore, A. Fleischer, and R. , Universal linker and ligation procedures for construction of genomic DNA libraries enriched for microsatellites, BioTechniques, vol.27, pp.500-507, 1999.

T. Kocher, W. Thomas, A. Meyer, S. Edwards, S. Paabo et al., Dynamics of mitochondrial DNA evolution in animals: amplification and sequencing with conserved primers., Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, pp.6196-6200, 1989.
DOI : 10.1073/pnas.86.16.6196

J. Legrand and P. Juchault, Nouvelles donn??es sur le d??terminisme g??n??tique et ??pig??n??tique de la monog??nie chez le crustac?? isopode terrestre Armadillidium vulgare Latr, Genetics Selection Evolution, vol.16, issue.1, pp.57-84, 1984.
DOI : 10.1186/1297-9686-16-1-57

URL : http://doi.org/10.1186/1297-9686-16-1-57

M. Raymond and F. Rousset, GENEPOP (Version 1.2): Population Genetics Software for Exact Tests and Ecumenicism, Journal of Heredity, vol.86, issue.3, pp.248-249, 1995.
DOI : 10.1093/oxfordjournals.jhered.a111573

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/halsde-00186383

T. Rigaud, D. Bouchon, C. Souty-grosset, and R. Raimond, Mitochondrial DNA polymorphism, sex ratio distorters and population genetics in the isopod Armadillidium vulgare, Genetics, vol.152, pp.1669-1677, 1999.

T. Rigaud and P. Juchault, Genetic control of the vertical transmission of a cytoplasmic sex factor in Armadillidium vulgare Latr. (Crustacea, Oniscidea), Heredity, vol.68, issue.1, pp.47-52, 1992.
DOI : 10.1038/hdy.1992.6

T. Rigaud and P. Juchault, Conflict between feminizing sex ratio distorters and an autosomal masculinizing gene in the terrestrial isopod Armadillidium vulgare Latr, Genetics, vol.133, pp.247-252, 1993.

J. Werren, O. Sneill, S. Hoffman, A. Werren, J. Lo et al., The evolution of heritable symbionts Mosaic nature of the Wolbachia surface protein, Influential Passengers: Inherited Microorganisms and Arthropod Reproduction, pp.125-154, 1997.

L. Baldo, S. Bordenstein, J. J. Wernegreen, and J. H. Werren, Widespread Recombination Throughout Wolbachia Genomes, Molecular Biology and Evolution, vol.23, issue.2, pp.437-449, 2005.
DOI : 10.1093/molbev/msj049

URL : http://mbe.oxfordjournals.org/cgi/content/short/23/2/437

L. Baldo, Multilocus Sequence Typing System for the Endosymbiont Wolbachia pipientis, Applied and Environmental Microbiology, vol.72, issue.11, pp.7098-7110, 2006.
DOI : 10.1128/AEM.00731-06

S. R. Bordenstein and J. J. Wernegreen, Bacteriophage Flux in Endosymbionts (Wolbachia): Infection Frequency, Lateral Transfer, and Recombination Rates, Molecular Biology and Evolution, vol.21, issue.10, 1981.
DOI : 10.1093/molbev/msh211

D. Bouchon, T. Rigaud, and P. Juchault, Evidence for widespread Wolbachia infection in isopod crustaceans: molecular identification and host feminization, Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, vol.265, issue.1401, pp.1081-1090, 1998.
DOI : 10.1098/rspb.1998.0402

H. R. Braig, W. Zhou, S. L. Dobson, and S. L. O-'neill, Cloning and characterization of a gene encoding the major surface protein of the bacterial endosymbiont Wolbachia pipientis, Journal of Bacteriology, vol.180, pp.2373-2378, 1998.

C. Braquart-varnier, P. Grève, C. Félix, and G. Martin, Bacteriophage WO in Wolbachia infecting terrestrial isopods, Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications, vol.337, issue.2, pp.580-585, 2005.
DOI : 10.1016/j.bbrc.2005.09.091

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00121332

R. Cordaux, A. Michel-salzat, and D. Bouchon, Wolbachia infection in crustaceans: novel hosts and potential routes for horizontal transmission, Journal of Evolutionary Biology, vol.265, issue.2, pp.237-243, 2001.
DOI : 10.1046/j.1420-9101.2001.00279.x

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00123774

R. Cordaux, A. Michel-salzat, M. Frelon-raimond, T. Rigaud, and D. Bouchon, Evidence for a new feminizing Wolbachia strain in the isopod Armadillidium vulgare: evolutionary implications, Heredity, vol.93, issue.1, pp.78-84, 2004.
DOI : 10.1038/sj.hdy.6800482

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00121257

O. Duron, J. Lagnel, M. Raymond, K. Bourtzis, P. Fort et al., Transposable element polymorphism of Wolbachia in the mosquito Culex pipiens: evidence of genetic diversity, superinfection and recombination, Molecular Ecology, vol.17, issue.5, pp.1561-1573, 2005.
DOI : 10.1016/0022-2011(73)90141-9

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/halsde-00193163

J. Foster, The Wolbachia Genome of Brugia malayi: Endosymbiont Evolution within a Human Pathogenic Nematode, PLoS Biology, vol.15, issue.1450, p.121, 2005.
DOI : 10.1371/journal.pbio.0030121.t003

S. A. Frank, Dynamics of Cytoplasmic Incompatability with MultipleWolbachiaInfections, Journal of Theoretical Biology, vol.192, issue.2, pp.213-218, 1998.
DOI : 10.1006/jtbi.1998.0652

M. J. Gibbs, J. S. Armstrong, and A. J. Gibbs, Sister-Scanning: a Monte Carlo procedure for assessing signals in recombinant sequences, Bioinformatics, vol.16, issue.7, pp.573-582, 2000.
DOI : 10.1093/bioinformatics/16.7.573

R. R. Hudson and N. L. Kaplan, Statistical properties of the number of recombination events in the history of a sample of DNA sequences, Genetics, vol.111, pp.147-164, 1985.

S. Verne, Evidence for recombination between feminizing Wolbachia in the isopod genus Armadillidium, Gene, vol.397, issue.1-2, pp.58-66, 2007.
DOI : 10.1016/j.gene.2007.04.006

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00159226

F. M. Jiggins, The Rate of Recombination in Wolbachia Bacteria, Molecular Biology and Evolution, vol.19, issue.9, pp.1640-1643, 2002.
DOI : 10.1093/oxfordjournals.molbev.a004228

F. M. Jiggins, G. D. Hurst, J. H. Schulenburg, and M. E. Majerus, Two male-killing Wolbachia strains coexist within a population of the butterfly Acraea encedon, Heredity, vol.261, issue.2, pp.161-166, 2001.
DOI : 10.1098/rspb.1998.0324

G. P. Keller, D. M. Windsor, J. M. Saucedo, and J. H. Werren, Reproductive effects and geographical distributions of two Wolbachia strains infecting the Neotropical beetle, Chelymorpha alternans Boh. (Chrysomelidae, Cassidinae), Molecular Ecology, vol.265, issue.317, pp.2405-2420, 2004.
DOI : 10.1111/j.1365-294X.2004.02213.x

S. Kumar, K. Tamura, and M. Nei, MEGA3: Integrated software for Molecular Evolutionary Genetics Analysis and sequence alignment, Briefings in Bioinformatics, vol.5, issue.2, pp.150-163, 2004.
DOI : 10.1093/bib/5.2.150

URL : http://bib.oxfordjournals.org/cgi/content/short/5/2/150

J. J. Legrand and P. Juchault, R??le des bact??ries symbiotiques dans l'intersexualit??, la monog??nie et la sp??ciation chez des crustac??s onisco??des, Bolletino di zoologia, vol.34, issue.2, pp.161-172, 1986.
DOI : 10.1051/rnd:19820702

G. Malloch and B. Fenton, Super-infections of Wolbachia in byturid beetles and evidence for genetic transfer between A and B super-groups of Wolbachia, Molecular Ecology, vol.265, issue.2, pp.627-637, 2005.
DOI : 10.1111/j.1365-294X.2005.02432.x

D. Martin and E. Rybicki, RDP: detection of recombination amongst aligned sequences, Bioinformatics, vol.16, issue.6, pp.562-563, 2000.
DOI : 10.1093/bioinformatics/16.6.562

URL : http://bioinformatics.oxfordjournals.org/cgi/content/short/16/6/562

S. Masui, S. Kamoda, T. Sasaki, and H. Ishikawa, Distribution and Evolution of Bacteriophage WO in Wolbachia, the Endosymbiont Causing Sexual Alterations in Arthropods, Journal of Molecular Evolution, vol.51, issue.5, pp.491-497, 2000.
DOI : 10.1007/s002390010112

M. Smith and J. , Analyzing the mosaic structure of genes, Journal of Molecular Evolution, vol.34, issue.2, pp.126-129, 1992.
DOI : 10.1007/BF00182389

A. Michel-salzat, R. Cordaux, and D. Bouchon, Wolbachia diversity in the Porcellionides pruinosus complex of species (Crustacea: Oniscidea): evidence for host-dependent patterns of infection, Heredity, vol.34, issue.4, pp.428-434, 2001.
DOI : 10.1098/rspb.1998.0324

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00123783

Y. Moret, P. Juchault, and T. Rigaud, Wolbachia endosymbiont responsible for cytoplasmic incompatibility in a terrestrial crustacean: effects in natural and foreign hosts, Heredity, vol.261, issue.3, pp.325-332, 2001.
DOI : 10.1098/rspb.1998.0324

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00123777

O. Neill, S. L. Giordano, R. Colbert, A. M. Karr, T. L. Robertson et al., 16S rRNA phylogenetic analysis of the bacterial endosymbionts associated with cytoplasmic incompatibility in insects, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, pp.2699-2702, 1992.

C. Paraskevopoulos, S. R. Bordenstein, J. J. Wernegreen, J. H. Werren, and K. Bourtzis, Toward a Wolbachia Multilocus Sequence Typing System: Discrimination of Wolbachia Strains Present in Drosophila Species, Current Microbiology, vol.5, issue.Pt 1, pp.388-395, 2006.
DOI : 10.1007/s00284-006-0054-1

D. Posada, Evaluation of Methods for Detecting Recombination from DNA Sequences: Empirical Data, Molecular Biology and Evolution, vol.19, issue.5, pp.708-717, 2002.
DOI : 10.1093/oxfordjournals.molbev.a004129

D. Posada and K. A. Crandall, Evaluation of methods for detecting recombination from DNA sequences: Computer simulations, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, vol.98, issue.24, pp.13757-13762, 2001.
DOI : 10.1073/pnas.241370698

M. Reuter and L. Keller, High Levels of Multiple Wolbachia Infection and Recombination in the Ant Formica exsecta, Molecular Biology and Evolution, vol.20, issue.5, pp.748-753, 2003.
DOI : 10.1093/molbev/msg082

T. Rigaud, Further Wolbachia endosymbiont diversity: a tree hiding in the forest?, Trends in Ecology & Evolution, vol.14, issue.6, pp.212-213, 1999.
DOI : 10.1016/S0169-5347(99)01599-2

T. Rigaud and P. Juchault, Success and failure of horizontal transfers of feminizing Wolbachia endosymbionts in woodlice, Journal of Evolutionary Biology, vol.8, issue.2, pp.249-255, 1995.
DOI : 10.1046/j.1420-9101.1995.8020249.x

T. Rigaud, C. Souty-grosset, R. Raimond, J. P. Mocquart, and P. Juchault, Feminizing endocytobiosis in the terrestrial crustacean Armadillidium vulgare Latr. (Isopoda): recent acquisitions, Endocytobiosis and Cell Research, vol.7, pp.259-273, 1991.

T. Rigaud, D. Antoine, I. Marcadé, and P. Juchault, The effect of temperature on sex ratio in the isopod Porcellionides pruinosus: Environmental sex determination or a by-product of cytoplasmic sex determination?, Evolutionary Ecology, vol.272, issue.2, pp.205-215, 1997.
DOI : 10.1023/A:1018404000804

T. Rigaud, P. S. Pennings, and P. Juchault, Wolbachia Bacteria Effects after Experimental Interspecific Transfers in Terrestrial Isopods, Journal of Invertebrate Pathology, vol.77, issue.4, pp.251-257, 2001.
DOI : 10.1006/jipa.2001.5026

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00123786

J. Rozas, J. C. Sánchez-delbarrio, X. Messeguer, and R. Rozas, DnaSP, DNA polymorphism analyses by the coalescent and other methods, Bioinformatics, vol.19, issue.18, pp.2496-2497, 2003.
DOI : 10.1093/bioinformatics/btg359

URL : http://bioinformatics.oxfordjournals.org/cgi/content/short/19/18/2496

M. O. Salminen, J. K. Carr, D. S. Burke, and F. E. Mccutchan, Identification of Breakpoints in Intergenotypic Recombinants of HIV Type 1 by Bootscanning, AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses, vol.11, issue.11, pp.1423-1425, 1995.
DOI : 10.1089/aid.1995.11.1423

S. L. Salzberg, Serendipitous discovery of Wolbachia genomes in multiple Drosophila species, Genome Biology, vol.6, issue.3, p.23, 2005.
DOI : 10.1186/gb-2005-6-3-r23

J. H. Schulenburg, G. D. Hurst, T. M. Huigens, M. M. Van-meer, F. M. Jiggins et al., Molecular Evolution and Phylogenetic Utility of Wolbachia ftsZ and wsp Gene Sequences with Special Reference to the Origin of Male-Killing, Molecular Biology and Evolution, vol.17, issue.4, pp.584-600, 2000.
DOI : 10.1093/oxfordjournals.molbev.a026338

R. Stouthamer, J. A. Breeuwer, and G. D. Hurst, : Microbial Manipulator of Arthropod Reproduction, Annual Review of Microbiology, vol.53, issue.1, pp.71-102, 1999.
DOI : 10.1146/annurev.micro.53.1.71

URL : http://micro.annualreviews.org/cgi/reprint/53/1/71.pdf

S. Van-borm, T. Wenseleers, J. Billen, and J. J. Boomsma, Cloning and sequencing of wsp encoding gene fragments reveals a diversity of co-infecting Wolbachia strains in Acromyrmex leafcutter ants, Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, vol.26, issue.1, pp.102-109, 2003.
DOI : 10.1016/S1055-7903(02)00298-1

F. Vavre, F. Fleury, D. Lepetit, P. Fouillet, and M. Bouletreau, Phylogenetic evidence for horizontal transmission of Wolbachia in host- parasitoid associations, Molecular Biology and Evolution, vol.16, issue.12, pp.1711-1723, 1999.
DOI : 10.1093/oxfordjournals.molbev.a026084

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00428457

J. H. Werren and D. M. Windsor, Wolbachia infection frequencies in insects: evidence of a global equilibrium?, Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, vol.267, issue.1450, pp.1277-1285, 2000.
DOI : 10.1098/rspb.2000.1139

J. H. Werren and J. D. Bartos, Recombination in Wolbachia, Current Biology, vol.11, issue.6, pp.431-435, 2001.
DOI : 10.1016/S0960-9822(01)00101-4

URL : http://doi.org/10.1016/s0960-9822(01)00101-4

J. H. Werren, D. M. Windsor, and L. Guo, Distribution of Wolbachia among Neotropical Arthropods, Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, vol.262, issue.1364, pp.197-204, 1995.
DOI : 10.1098/rspb.1995.0196

M. Wu, Phylogenomics of the Reproductive Parasite Wolbachia pipientis wMel: A Streamlined Genome Overrun by Mobile Genetic Elements, PLoS Biology, vol.265, issue.3, p.69, 2004.
DOI : 10.1371/journal.pbio.0020069.st009

W. Zhou, F. Rousset, and S. L. O-'neill, Phylogeny and PCR-based classification of Wolbachia strains using wsp gene sequences, Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, vol.265, issue.1395, pp.509-515, 1998.
DOI : 10.1098/rspb.1998.0324

I. B. Abbotp&moranna, Extremelylowlevelsofgeneticpolymorphismin endosymbionts(Buchnera)ofaphids(Pemphigus), 2002.

D. Baileymf, Modellinggynodioecy:novelscenariosfor maintainingpolymorphism.AmerNat161, pp.762-776, 2003.

. Baldol and W. Bordensteins, Widespreadrecombination throughoutWolbachiagenomes.MolBiolEvol23, pp.437-449, 2005.

. Baudrye, . Bartosj, and W. Emersonk, Wolbachiaandgenetic variabilityinthebirdnestblowflyProtocalliphorasialia.MolEcol12, 1843.

. Belkhirk, . Borsap, and R. Chikhil, GENETIX4.05,logiciel sousWindowsTMpourlagénétiquedespopulations, 2004.

O. Bordensteinsr and . Harafpandwerrenjh, Wolbachiainducedincompatibility precedesotherhybridincompatibilitiesinNasonia, Nature409, p.707, 2001.

R. Bouchond, Evidenceforwide/spreadWolbachiainfectionin isopodcrustaceans:molecularidentificationandhostfeminization, ProcRSocLond [Biol], vol.265, 1081.

O. Boylel and R. Neillsl, Interspecificandintraspecific horizontaltransferofWolbachiainDrosophila, 1796.

T. Budarf, Thenucleo/mitochondrialconflictincytoplasmic malesterilitiesrevisited, Genetica117, issue.3, p.16, 2003.

B. Campbellbc, Phylogenyofsymbioticbacteriaoffour weevilspecies(Coleoptera:Curculionidae)basedonanalysisof16SribosomalDNA. InsectBiochemMolBiol22, pp.415-421, 1992.

. Caubety and M. Hatchermj, Geneticconflictandchangesin heterogameticmechanismsofsexdetermination.JEvolBiol13, pp.766-777, 2000.

H. Charlats, EvolutionaryconsequencesofWolbachia infections.TrendsGenet19, p.223, 2003.

L. Charlats, Characterizationofnon/cytoplasmic incompatibilityinducingWolbachiaintwocontinentalAfricanpopulationsof Drosophilasimulans.Heredity90, pp.49-55, 2003.

. Cordauxr, /. Michel, and . Salzataandbouchond, Wolbachia infection in crustaceans: novel hosts and potential routes for horizontal transmission, Journal of Evolutionary Biology, vol.265, issue.2, pp.237-243, 2001.
DOI : 10.1046/j.1420-9101.2001.00279.x

M. /. Cordauxr, . Salzata, /. Frelon, and R. Raimondm, Evidence foranewfeminizingWolbachiastrainintheisopodArmadillidiumvulgare: evolutionaryimplications.Heredity93, pp.78-84, 2004.

R. Couvetd, Themaintenanceofnucleocytoplasmic polymorphisminametapopulation:thecaseofgynodioecy.AmerNat152, p.70, 1998.

. Dedeinef, . Vavref, . Fleuryf, and H. Loppinb, Removing symbioticWolbachiabacteriaspecificallyinhibitsoogenesisinaparasiticwasp, PNAS, vol.986247, p.6252, 2001.

. Dedeinef, . Vavref, and . Shoemakerddandbouletreaum, Intra/individualcoexistenceof aWolbachiastrainrequiredforhostoogenesiswithtwostrainsinducingcytoplasmic incompatibilityinthewaspAsobaratabida, 2004.

B. Dedeinef, Wolbachiarequirementforoogenesis: occurrencewithinthegenusAsobara(Hymenoptera,Braconidae)andevidencefor intraspecificvariationinA.tabida.Heredity95, pp.394-400, 2005.

. Dirienzoa, . Petersonac, . Garzajc, . Valdesam, and . Slatkinmandfreimernb, Mutationalprocessesofsimple/sequencerepeatlociinhumanpopulations, pp.3166-3170, 1994.

D. Duboserf, Geneticexchangeamongnaturalisolatesof bacteria:recombinationwithinthephoAgeneofEscherichiacoli.PNAS85, pp.7036-7040, 1988.

. Durono, . Lagnelj, . Raymondm, and F. Bourtzisk, Transposable elementpolymorphismofWolbachiainthemosquitoCulexpipiens:evidenceof geneticdiversity,superinfectionandrecombination.MolEcol14, pp.1561-1573, 2005.

/. Escorza and . Trevinos&dizonae, Phylogeography,intraspecificstructureandsex/ biaseddispersalofDall'sporpoise,Phocoenoidesdalli,revealedbymitochondrialand microsatelliteDNAanalyses, 1049.

S. Excoffierl, Analysisofmolecularvarianceinferredfrom metricdistancesamongDNAhaplotypes:applicationtohumanmitochondrialDNA restrictiondata.Genetics131, pp.479-491, 1992.

. Favrel, . Ballouxf, and . Goudetjandperrinn, Female/biaseddispersalinthe monogamousmammalCrocidurarussula:evidencefromfielddataandmicrosatellite patterns, ProcRSocLond[Biol], vol.264, pp.127-132, 1997.

S. Ferraraft, Acheck/listofterrestrialisopodsfromAfrica(southoftheSahara), 1979.

. Fialhorf&stevensl, Male/killingWolbachiainaflourbeetle, ProcRSocLond [Biol], vol.267, 1469.

. Franksa, DynamicsofcytoplasmicincompatibilitywithmultipleWolbachia infections, JTheorBiol192, vol.213, 0218.

. Fujiiy, . Kageyamad, and I. Hoshizakis, Transfectionof WolbachiainLepidoptera:thefeminizeroftheadzukibeanborerOstriniascapulalis causesmalekillingintheMediterraneanflourmothEphestiakuehniella, ProcBiolSci, vol.268855, p.859, 2001.

. Gaggiottioe and R. Langeo, Acomparisonoftwoindirect methodsforestimatingaveragelevelsofgeneflowusingmicrosatellitedata, 1513.

A. Gibbsmj, Sister/Scanning:aMonteCarloprocedurefor assessingsignalsinrecombinantsequences.Bioinformatics16, pp.573-582, 2000.

. Girmandj, . Vilàc, . Geffene, . Creels, . Millsmgl et al., Patternsofpopulationsubdivision,geneflowandgenetic variabilityintheAfricanwilddog(Lycaonpictus).MolEcol10, pp.1703-1723, 2001.

F. Gorhamch, Wolbachiaendosymbiontsinfleas (Siphonaptera).JParasitol89, pp.283-289, 2003.

N. Gotoht, Wolbachiadistributionandcytoplasmic incompatibilitybasedonasurveyof42spidermitespecies(Acari:Tetranychidae)in Japan, 2003.

N. Gotoht, Cardiniumsymbiontscausecytoplasmicincompatibilityin spidermites.Heredity98, 1920.

V. Gouyonph, Nuclear/cytoplasmicmale/sterility: singlepointequilibriaversuslimitcycles.AmerNat137, pp.498-514, 1991.

R. Grandjeanf, . Raimondr, /. Juchaultpandsouty, and . Grossetc, Mitochondrial DNApolymorphismandfeminizingsexfactorsdynamicsinanaturalpopulationof Armadillidiumvulgare(Crustacea,Isopoda).Genetica92, p.5560, 1993.

. Hallta, BioEdit:auser/friendlybiologicalsequencealignmenteditorandanalysis programforWindows95/98/NT, Nucl.Acids.Symp.Ser, vol.41, pp.95-98, 1999.

. Hamiltonwd, Selectionofselfishandaltruisticbehaviorinsomeextrememodels, EisenbergJF,DilsonWS), pp.57-91, 1971.

. Harrisons&hastingsa, Geneticandevolutionaryconsequencesofmetapopulation structure.TrendsEcolEvol11, p.183, 1996.

. Hertigm&wolbachsb, StudiesonRickettsia/likemicroorganismsininsects, J.Med. Res, vol.44, pp.329-374, 1924.

. Hertigm, TheRickettsia,Wolbachiapipientis(gen.etsp.n.)andassociatedinclusions ofthemosquito,Culexpipiens.Parasitology28, pp.453-486, 1936.

. Hirokim and K. Katoy, Feminizationofgeneticmalesbya symbioticbacteriuminabutterfly,Euremahecabe(Lepidoptera:Pieridae), 2002.

. Hirokim and M. Tagamiy, MultipleinfectionwithWolbachia inducingdifferentreproductivemanipulationsinthebutterflyEuremahecabe, Biol], vol.271, 1751.

. Hoffmannaa&turellim, CytoplasmicincompatibilityininsectsIn:Influential passengers:inheritedmicroorganismsandarthropodreproduction(eds.O'NeillSL, 1997.

. Huigensme and L. Boonspah, Natural interspecificandintraspecifichorizontaltransferofparthenogenesis/inducing WolbachiainTrichogrammawasps, ProcRSocLond[Biol], vol.271, pp.509-515, 2004.

P. Hunterms, AbacterialsymbiontintheBacteroidetes inducescytoplasmicincompatibilityintheparasitoidwaspEncarsiapergandiella, ProcRSocLond[Biol], vol.270, 2003.

. Hurstgdd, . Hammartontc, and M. Bandic, Thediversityof inheritedparasitesofinsects:themale/killingagentoftheladybirdbeetle ColeomagillamaculataisamemberoftheFlavobacteria, GenetRes70, issue.16, 1997.

. Hurstgdd, . Schulenburgj, . Majerustmo, and . Bertranddandzakharovia, Invasionof oneinsectspecies,Adaliabipunctata,bytwodifferentmale/killingbacteria.Insect MolBiol8, pp.133-139, 1999.

. Hurstgdd, . Johnsonap, and . Schulenburgjandfuyamay, Male/killingWolbachiain Drosophila:atemperature/sensitivetraitwithathresholdbacterialdensity, Genetics, vol.156, pp.699-709, 2000.

. Hurwoodda, . Hughesjm, and . Bunnseandclearyc, Populationstructureinthe freshwatershrimp(Paratyaaustraliensis)inferredfromallozymesandmitochondrial DNA.Heredity90, p.70, 2003.

. Ironsideje and R. Dunnam, Associationwithhost mitochondrialhaplotypessuggeststhatfeminizingmicrosporidialackhorizontal transmission, 1077.

. Ironsideje, . Smithje, . Hatchermj, and R. Sharperg, Two speciesoffeminizingmicrosporidianparasitecoexistinpopulationsofGammarus duebeni, JEvolBiol16, pp.467-473, 2003.

W. Jakobsenib, Thepartitionmatrix:exploringvariable phylogeneticsignalsalongnucleotidesequencealignments.MolBiolEvol14, pp.474-484, 1997.

H. Jigginsfm, Sex/ratio/distortingWolbachiacausessex/ rolereversalinitsbutterflyhost, ProcRSocLond[Biol], vol.267, pp.69-73, 2000.

H. Jigginsfm, Highprevalencemale/killingWolbachia inthebutterflyAcraeaencedena, JEvolBiol13, p.495, 2000.

. Jigginsfm, Recombination confoundsinterpretationsofWolbachiaevolution, ProcRSocLond[Biol], vol.268, pp.1423-1427, 2001.

L. Juchaultp, Contributionàl'étudequalitativeet quantitativedesfacteurscontrôlantlesexedanslespopulationsducrustacéisopode terrestreArmadillidiumvulgare.I.LapopulationdeNiort(DeuxSèvres)ArchZool ExpGén121, pp.3-27, 1980.

. Juchaultp and M. Louisc, Masculinizationoffemaleisopods (Crustacea)correlatedwithnon/Mendelianinheritanceofcytoplasmicviruses, PNAS, vol.88, 1991.

L. Juchaultp, Evolutionofsexdeterminingmechanismsin awildpopulationofArmadillidiumvulgare(Latr.)(Crustacea,Isopoda):cmpetition betweentwofeminizingparasiticsexfactors.Heredity69, p.382390, 1992.

R. Juchaultp, Evolutionofsexdeterminationandsexratio variabilityinwildpopulationsofArmadillidiumvulgare(Latr.)(Crustacea,Isopoda): acasestudyinconflictresolution.ActaOecologica14, pp.547-562, 1993.

. Juchaultp, . Frelonm, and . Bouchondandrigaudt, Newevidenceforfeminizingbacteria interrestrialisopods:evolutionaryimplications.CRAcadSciIII317, p.225230, 1994.

R. Kambhampatis, FrequenciesofmitochondrialDNA haplotypesinlaboratorycagepopulationsofthemosquito,Aedesalbopictus, Genetics, vol.132, pp.205-209, 1992.

. Kellergp and S. Windsordm, Reproductiveeffectsand geographicaldistributionsoftwoWolbachiastrainsinfectingtheneotropicalbeetle, ChelymorphaalternansBoh.(Chrysomelidae,Cassidinae), 2004.

. Knightme, . Oppenmjhv, . Smithhl, and H. Ricoc, Evidence formale/biaseddispersalinLakeMalawicichlidsfrommicrosatellites, 1521.

. Kochertd, . Thomaswk, . Meyera, . Edwardssv, . Paabos et al., DynamicsofmitochondrialDNAevolutioninanimals:amplificationand sequencingwithconservedprimers, p.61966200, 1989.

T. Kumars, MEGA3:IntegratedsoftwareforMolecular EvolutionaryGeneticsAnalysisandsequencealignment.BriefBioinform5, p.163, 2004.

. Lachaised, . Harrym, . Solignacm, . Lemeunierf, and . Benassivandcariouml, Evolutionarynoveltiesinislands:Drosophilasantomea,anewmelanogastersister speciesfromSaoTome, ProcRSocLond[Biol], vol.267, pp.1487-1495, 2000.

. Loleks, . Bollingerrc, . Paranjapers, . Gadkarid, . Kulkarniss et al., Full/lengthhumanimmunodeficiencyvirustype1 genomesfromsubtypeC/infectedseroconvertersinIndia,withevidenceof intersubtyperecombination.JVirol73, p.152160, 1999.

J. Marting, Miseenevidenced'unmicroorganisme intracytoplasmiquesymbiotedel'OniscoideArmadillidiumvulgareL.dontlaprésence accompagnel'intersexualitéoulaféminisationtotaledesmâlesgénétiquesdelalignée théligène, 1973.

. Masuis and S. Kamodas, Distributionandevolutionof bacteriophageWOinWolbachia,theendosymbiontcausingsexualalterationsin arthropods, JMolEvol51, pp.491-497, 2000.

/. Maynard and . Smithjm&haighj, Thehitch/hikingeffectofafavourablegene, GenetRes, vol.2323, p.35, 1974.

. Mccauleyde&taylordr, Localpopulationstructureandsexratio:Evolutionin gynodioeciousplants.AmerNat150, pp.406-419, 1997.

. Mccauleyde and E. Olsonms, PopulationStructureInfluences SexRatioEvolutioninaGynodioeciousPlant.AmerNat155, p.819, 2000.

/. Michel and C. Salzata, WolbachiadiversityinthePorcellionides pruinosuscomplexofspecies(Crustacea,Oniscidea):evidenceforhost/dependant patternsofinfection.Heredity87, pp.428-434, 2001.

. Moreauj and C. Bertina, Sexualselectioninanisopodwith Wolbachia/inducedsexreversal:malespreferrealfemales.JEvolBiol14, pp.388-394, 2001.

J. Morety, Wolbachiaendosymbiontresponsiblefor cytoplasmicincompatibilityinaterrestrialcrustacean:effectsinnaturalandforeign hosts.Heredity86, pp.325-332, 2001.

. Moutonl, . Dedeinef, . Henrih, and P. Bouletreaum, Virulence, multipleinfectionsandregulationofsymbioticpopulationintheWolbachia/Asobara tabidasymbiosis, Genetics168, pp.181-189, 2004.

. Naritas and K. Nomuram, Geneticstructureofsiblingbutterfly speciesaffectedbyWolbachiainfectionsweep:evolutionaryandbiogeographical implications.MolEcol15, 1095.

. Negrii, . Pellecchiam, and P. Mazzogliopj, FeminizingWolbachiain Zyginidiapullula(Insecta,Hemiptera),aleafhopperwithanXX/X0sex/determination system, ProcRSocLond[Biol], vol.273, pp.2409-2416, 2006.

O. Neillsl and H. , Influentialpassengers:inherited microorganismsandarthropodreproductionOxfordUniversityPress, 1997.

C. Paetkaud and . Stirlingiandstrobeckc, Microsatelliteanalysisofpopulation structureinCanadianpolarBears.MolEcol4, p.354, 1995.

V. Peekas, Acceleratedevolutionaryrateinsulfur/ oxidizingendosymbioticbacteriaassociatedwiththemodeofsymbionttransmission. MolBiolEvol15, pp.1514-1523, 1998.

. Pirys and /. Luikartgandcornuetj, Computer note. BOTTLENECK: a computer program for detecting recent reductions in the effective size using allele frequency data, Journal of Heredity, vol.90, issue.4, pp.502-503, 1999.
DOI : 10.1093/jhered/90.4.502

R. Plantardo and L. Mondorg, Distributionand phylogenyofWolbachiainducingthelytokyinRhoditiniand'Aylacini'(Hymenoptera: Cynipidae).InsectMolBiol8, p.185, 0191.

. Poinsotd, . Bourtzisk, and S. Markakisg, Wolbachiatransferfrom DrosophilamelanogasterintoD.simulans:Hosteffectandcytoplasmic incompatibilityrelationships, Genetics150, pp.227-237, 1998.

. Pulliamhr, Sources,sinksandpopulationregulation.AmerNat132Sources,sinks,andhabitatselection:Alandscape perspectiveonpopulationdynamics, PulliamHR&DanielsonBJ, vol.652661, 1988.

. Raimondr, EtudeduPolymorphismeEnzymatiquedanscinqPopulationsNaturelles d'ArmadillidiumvulgareLatreille(CrustaceaIsopodaOniscidea)In:Actesde Colloques:AspectsrécentsdelaBiologiedesCrustacés, LeGalY,van WormhoudtA), p.191, 0194.

J. Randersonjp, Malekillingcanselectformalematechoice: anovelsolutiontotheparadoxofthelek, ProcRSocLond[Biol], vol.267867874, 2000.

C. Rasgonjl, Evolutionaryhistoryofamosquitoendosymbiont revealedthroughmitochondrialhitchhiking, ProcRSocLond[Biol], vol.273, 1603.

T. Reynoldskt, Theeffectsofhostage,hostnuclear backgroundandtemperatureonphenotypiceffectsofthevirulentWolbachiastrain popcorninDrosophilamelanogaster, 1027.

. Rigaudt, /. Souty, . Grossetc, and M. Raimondr, Feminizing endocytobiosisintheterrestrialcrustaceanArmadillidiumvulgareLatr, Isopoda): recentacquisitions.EndocytCellRes7, pp.259-273, 1991.

M. Rigaudt, Thespreadofparasiticsexfactorsin populationsofArmadillidiumvulgareLatr.(Crustacea,Oniscidea):effectsonsex ratio, GenetSelEvol24, issue.3, 1992.

. Rigaudt and M. Antoined, The effect of temperature on sex ratio in the isopod Porcellionides pruinosus: Environmental sex determination or a by-product of cytoplasmic sex determination?, Evolutionary Ecology, vol.272, issue.2, pp.205-215, 1997.
DOI : 10.1023/A:1018404000804

. Rigaudt, . Bouchond, /. Souty, and . Grossetcandraimondr, MitochondrialDNA Polymorphism,SexRatioDistortersandPopulationGeneticsintheIsopod Armadillidiumvulgare, Genetics152, pp.1669-1677, 1999.

. Roehrdanzr, . Olsond, . Bourchierr, and C. Searss, Mitochondrial DNAdiversityandWolbachiainfectioninthefleabeetleAphthonanigriscutis (Coleoptera:Chrysomelidae):Anintroducedbiocontrolagentforleafyspurge, Biol, vol.37, issue.18, 2006.

. Rokasa, . Atkinsonrj, . Browngs, and . Westsaandstonegn, Understandingpatternsof geneticdiversityintheoakgallwaspBiorhizapallida:demographichistoryora Wolbachiaselectivesweep?Heredity87, pp.294-304, 2001.

. Rosskg, . Shoemakerdd, and D. Kriegermjb, Assessinggenetic structurewithmultipleclassesofmolecularmarkers:Acasestudyinvolvingthe introducedfireantSolenopsisinvicta.MolBiolEvol16, pp.525-543, 1999.

. Rossitersj and R. Jonesg, Geneticvariationandpopulation structureintheendangeredgreaterhorseshoebatRhinolophusferrumequinum, 1131.

R. Roussetf, Cytoplasmicincompatibilitiesinthemosquito Culexpipiens:Howtoexplainacytotypepolymorphism.JEvolBiol4, p.81, 1991.

. Saitoun&neim, Theneighbor/joiningmethod:anewmethodforreconstructing phylogenetictrees.MolBiolEvol4, pp.406-425, 1987.

. Salvatop, . Battistia, . Concatos, . Masuttil, and . Patarnellotandl, Genetic differentiationinthewinterpineprocessionarymoth(Thaumetopoeapityocampa/ wilkinsonicomplex),inferredbyAFLPandmitochondrialDNAmarkers, MolEcol, vol.11, pp.2435-2444, 2002.

. Schulenburgjh, . Hurstgd, and . Huigenstm, MolecularevolutionandphylogeneticutilityofWolbachiaftsZandwspgene sequenceswithspecialreferencetotheoriginofmale/killing, p.600, 2000.

. Schulenburgjh, . Hurstgd, . Tetzlaffd, and Z. Boothge, Historyofinfectionwithdifferentmale/killingbacteriainthetwo/spotladybirdbeetle AdaliabipunctatarevealedthroughmitochondrialDNAsequenceanalysis, Genetics, vol.160, pp.1075-1086, 2002.

. Scribnerkt, . Petersenmr, . Fieldsrl, and P. Talbotsl, Sex/ biasedgeneflowinspectacledeiders(Anatidae):inferencesfrommolecularmarkers withcontrastingmodesofinheritance, 2001.

. Seielstadmt, /. Mincheandcavalli, and . Sforzall, Geneticevidenceforahigherfemale migrationrateinhumans.NatGenet20, p.280, 1998.

K. Shoemakerdd, WolbachiaandtheEvolutionofReproductive IsolationbetweenDrosophilarecensandDrosophilasubquinaria.Evolution53, 1157.

. Shoemakerdd, . Dyerka, and M. Ahrensm, Decreaseddiversity butincreasedsubstitutionrateinhostmtDNAasaconsequenceofWolbachia endosymbiontinfection, Genetics168, 2004.

. Slatkinm, Ameasureofpopulationsubdivisionbasedonmicrosatelliteallele frequencies, Genetics139, pp.457-462, 1995.

. J. Sokalrr&f, Biometry:theprinciplesandpracticeofstatisticsinbiological research, 1995.

. Sörensene&burkettr, Apopulationstudyoftheisopod,Armadillidiumvulgare,in northeasternTexas, SouthwesternNaturalist(Dallas), vol.22, pp.375-388, 1977.

/. Souty and R. Grossetc, Déterminismeépigénétiquedusexeet divergencegénétiquedel'ADNmitochondrialchezArmadillidiumvulgareLatr. (CrustacéOniscoïde):variabilitéinteretintrapopulations.CRAcadSciParis(Série D)314, p.125, 1992.

G. Stevensl, Male/Killing,nematodeinfections, bacteriophageinfection,andvirulenceofcytoplasmicbacteriainthegenus Wolbachia, p.545, 2001.

B. Stouthamerr and . Gdd, Wolbachiapipientis:microbial manipulatorofarthropodreproduction.AnnuRevMicrobiol53, pp.71-102, 1999.

. Taylordr, Evolutionaryconsequencesofcytoplasmicsex/ratiodistorters, JEvolEcol, vol.4235, p.248, 1990.

H. Telschowa, TheeffectofWolbachiaversusgenetic incompatibilitiesonreinforcementandspeciation.Evolution59, 1607.

. Telschowa, . Engelstadterj, and H. Yamamuran, Asymmetric geneflowandconstraintsonadaptationcausedbysexratiodistorters, JEvolBiol19, vol.869878, 2006.

. Tiedemannr, . Pauluskb, . Scheerm, . Vonkistowskikg, . Skírnissonk et al., MitochondrialDNAandmicrosatellitevariationintheeiderduck(Somateria mollissima)indicatestepwisepostglacialcolonizationofEuropeandlimitedcurrent long/distancedispersal.MolEcol13, pp.1481-1494, 2004.

H. Turellim, Dynamicsofcytoplasmic incompatibilityandmtDNAvariationinnaturalDrosophilasimulanspopulations. Genetics132, pp.713-723, 1992.

S. Valdesam, Allelefrequenciesatmicrosatelliteloci:the stepwisemutationmodelrevisited.Genetics133,737/749. vanBormS,WenseleersT, BillenJandBoomsmaJJ, pp.102-109, 1993.

. Vavref, . Fleuryf, and F. Lepetitd, Phylogeneticevidencefor horizontaltransmissionofWolbachiainhost/parasitoidassociations, MolBiolEvol, vol.16, 1711.

. Vernes, . Johnsonm, and . Bouchondandgrandjeanf, Evidenceforrecombination betweenfeminizingWolbachiaintheisopodgenusArmadillidium.Gene397, pp.58-66, 2007.

M. Weeksar, AMiteSpeciesThatConsistsEntirelyof HaploidFemales, 2001.

T. Weeksar, Wolbachiadynamicsandhost effects:whathas(andhasnot)beendemonstrated?TrendsEcolEvol17, p.262, 2002.

. Weeksar&stouthamerr, Increasedfecundityassociatedwithinfectionbya cytophaga/likeintracellularbacteriuminthepredatorymite, Metaseiulusoccidentalis. ProcRSocLond[Biol], vol.271, issue.4, 0195.

. Wenseleerst, . Itof, . Vanborms, . Huybrechtsr, and . Volckaertfandbillenj, Widespread occurrenceofthemicro/organismWolbachiainants, ProcRSocLond[Biol], vol.265, pp.1447-1452, 1998.

W. Werrenjh, DistributionofWolbachiaamongneotropical arthropods, ProcRSocLond[Biol], vol.262, p.204, 0197.

Z. Werrenjh, EvolutionandphylogenyofWolbachia: reproductiveparasitesofarthropods, ProcRSocLond[Biol], vol.261, pp.55-71, 1995.

. Yenjh&barrar, Newhypothesisofthecauseofcytoplasmicincompatibilityin CulexpipiensL, Nature232, vol.657, p.658, 1971.

/. Zchori, . Feine, . Gottlieby, . Kellyse, . Brownjk et al., Anewlydiscoveredbacteriumassociatedwithparthenogenesisandachangeinhost selectionbehaviorinparasitoidwasps, p.12555, 2001.

R. Zhouw and . Neillsl, PhylogenyandPCRbasedclassificationof Wolbachiastrainsusingwspgenesequences, ProcRSocLond[Biol], vol.265509, p.515, 1998.