. Welton, Reduction of tropical cloudiness by soot, Science, vol.288, pp.1042-1047, 2000.

B. A. Albrecht, Fractional Cloudiness and Cloud-Top Entrainment Instability, Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences, vol.48, issue.12, pp.1519-1525, 1991.
DOI : 10.1175/1520-0469(1991)048<1519:FCACTE>2.0.CO;2

B. Albrecht, 1989: Aerosols, cloud microphysics and fractional cloudiness, Science, vol.243, pp.1227-1230

C. D. Anger, S. Mah, and S. K. Babey, Technical enhancements of the Compact Airborne Spectrographic Imager (CASI), Proceedings of the Second International Airborne Remote Sensing Conference and Exhibition, pp.205-214, 1994.

M. B. Baker, R. G. Cobin, and J. Latham, The influence of entrainment on the evolution of cloud droplet spectra: I. A model of inhomogeneous mixing, Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society, vol.101, issue.449, pp.581-598, 1980.
DOI : 10.1002/qj.49710644914

A. J. Baran, S. Havemann, P. N. Francis, and P. D. Watts, A consistent set of single-scattering properties for cirrus cloud: tests using radiance measurements from a dual-viewing multi-wavelength satellite-based instrument, Journal of Quantitative Spectroscopy and Radiative Transfer, vol.79, issue.80, pp.549-567, 2003.
DOI : 10.1016/S0022-4073(02)00307-2

H. W. Barker, A Parameterization for Computing Grid-Averaged Solar Fluxes for Inhomogeneous Marine Boundary Layer Clouds. Part I: Methodology and Homogeneous Biases, Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences, vol.53, issue.16, pp.2289-2303, 1996.
DOI : 10.1175/1520-0469(1996)053<2289:APFCGA>2.0.CO;2

H. W. Barker and J. A. Davies, Cumulus cloud radiative properties and the characteristics of satellite radiance wavenumber spectra, Remote Sensing of Environment, vol.42, issue.1, pp.51-64, 1992.
DOI : 10.1016/0034-4257(92)90067-T

H. W. Barker and J. A. Davis, Solar Radiative Fluxes for Broken Cloud Fields above Reflecting Surfaces, Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences, vol.49, issue.9, pp.749-761, 1992.
DOI : 10.1175/1520-0469(1992)049<0749:SRFFBC>2.0.CO;2

H. W. Barker and J. A. Davis, Solar Radiative Fluxes for Stochastic, Scale-invariant Broken Cloud Fields, Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences, vol.49, issue.13, pp.1115-1126, 1992.
DOI : 10.1175/1520-0469(1992)049<1115:SRFFSS>2.0.CO;2

P. Bechtold, Modeling a stratocumulus-Topped PBL: Intercomparison among Different One-Dimensional Codes and with Large Eddy Simulation, Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, vol.77, pp.92033-2042, 1996.

J. W. Bergmann and P. J. Rasch, Parameterizing Vertically Coherent Cloud Distributions, Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences, vol.59, issue.14, pp.142165-2182, 2002.
DOI : 10.1175/1520-0469(2002)059<2165:PVCCD>2.0.CO;2

P. Bougeault and P. Mascart, The Meso-NH Atmospheric Simulation System: Scientific Documentation, 2000.

P. Bougeault, The Diurnal Cycle of the Marine Stratocumulus Layer: A Higher-Order Model Study, Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences, vol.42, issue.24, pp.2826-2843, 1985.
DOI : 10.1175/1520-0469(1985)042<2826:TDCOTM>2.0.CO;2

J. Brenguier, H. Pawlowska, and L. Schüller, Cloud microphysical and radiative properties for parameterization and satellite monitoring of the indirect effect of aerosol on climate, Journal of Geophysical Research, vol.24, issue.D15, pp.10-1029, 2003.
DOI : 10.1029/2002JD002682

J. Brenguier and L. Chaumat, Droplet Spectra Broadening in Cumulus Clouds. Part I: Broadening in Adiabatic Cores, Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences, vol.58, issue.6, pp.628-641, 2001.
DOI : 10.1175/1520-0469(2001)058<0628:DSBICC>2.0.CO;2

J. L. Brenguier, H. Pawlowska, L. Schüller, R. Preusker, J. Fischer et al., Radiative Properties of Boundary Layer Clouds: Droplet Effective Radius versus Number Concentration, Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences, vol.57, issue.6, pp.803-821, 2000.
DOI : 10.1175/1520-0469(2000)057<0803:RPOBLC>2.0.CO;2

J. Brenguier, Parameterization of the Condensation Process: A Theoretical Approach, Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences, vol.48, issue.2, pp.264-282, 1991.
DOI : 10.1175/1520-0469(1991)048<0264:POTCPA>2.0.CO;2

F. Breon, Reflectance of Broken Cloud Fields: Simulation and Parameterization, Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences, vol.49, issue.14, 1992.
DOI : 10.1175/1520-0469(1992)049<1221:ROBCFS>2.0.CO;2

C. S. Bretherton, M. Macvean, P. Bechtold, A. Chlond, W. Cotton et al., An intercomparison of radiatively driven entrainment and turbulence in a smoke cloud, as simulated by different numerical models, Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society, vol.54, issue.554, pp.391-423, 1999.
DOI : 10.1002/qj.49712555402

C. S. Bretherton and M. C. Wyant, Moisture Transport, Lower-Tropospheric Stability, and Decoupling of Cloud-Topped Boundary Layers, Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences, vol.54, issue.1, pp.148-167, 1997.
DOI : 10.1175/1520-0469(1997)054<0148:MTLTSA>2.0.CO;2

C. S. Bretherton and R. K. Smith, 1997: The Physics and Parameterization of Moist Atmospheric Convection, NATO ASI Series, vol.505

J. Brewer and L. D. Girolamo, Can the fractal dimension of clouds be measured, 14 th ICCP, Proceedings, pp.1632-1635, 2004.

G. Brogniez, F. Parol, J. C. Buriez, and Y. Fouquart, Bidirectional reflectances of cirrus clouds modelized from observations during the International Cirrus Experiment 89, Proceedings of International Radiation Symposium, pp.133-136, 1992.

F. Burnet, J. And, and . Brenguier, Observational study of the entrainment-mixing process, 2005.

F. Burnet and J. L. Brenguier, the microscale structure of entrainment-mixing in boundary layer clouds, Proc.14 th ICCP, pp.360-362, 2004.

F. Burnet and J. L. Brenguier, Effect of entrainment and mixing on droplet spectral broadening, Proc. 13 th ICCP, pp.144-147, 2000.

R. F. Cahalan, Liquid Water Path and Plane-Parallel Albedo Bias during ASTEX, Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences, vol.52, issue.16, pp.3002-3012, 1995.
DOI : 10.1175/1520-0469(1995)052<3002:LWPAPP>2.0.CO;2

R. F. Cahalan, Independent Pixel and Monte Carlo Estimates of Stratocumulus Albedo, Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences, vol.51, issue.24, pp.3776-3790, 1994.
DOI : 10.1175/1520-0469(1994)051<3776:IPAMCE>2.0.CO;2

R. F. Cahalan, W. Ridgway, W. J. Wiscombe, T. L. Bell, and J. B. Snider, The Albedo of Fractal Stratocumulus Clouds, Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences, vol.51, issue.16, pp.2434-2455, 1994.
DOI : 10.1175/1520-0469(1994)051<2434:TAOFSC>2.0.CO;2

R. F. Cahalan and J. B. Snider, Marine stratocumulus structure, Remote Sensing of Environment, vol.28, pp.95-107, 1989.
DOI : 10.1016/0034-4257(89)90108-9

R. D. Cess, G. L. Potter, J. P. Blanchet, G. J. Boer, D. Genio et al., Retrieving vertical profiles of water-cloud droplet effective radius: algorithm modification and preliminary application, J. Geo. Res, vol.108, issue.D24, p.476310, 1029.

R. D. Cess, G. L. Potter, J. P. Blanchet, G. J. Boer, D. Genio et al., Intercomparison and interpretation of climate feedback processes in 19 atmospheric general circulation models, Journal of Geophysical Research, vol.92, issue.D10, pp.16601-16616, 1990.
DOI : 10.1029/JD095iD10p16601

R. J. Charlson, J. E. Lovelock, M. O. Andreae, and S. G. Warren, Oceanic phytoplankton, atmospheric sulfur, cloud albedo and climate, Nature, pp.326655-661, 1987.
DOI : 10.1038/326655a0

C. Moeng, Entrainment Rate, Cloud Fraction, and Liquid Water Path of PBL Stratocumulus Clouds, Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences, vol.57, issue.21, pp.3627-3643, 2000.
DOI : 10.1175/1520-0469(2000)057<3627:ERCFAL>2.0.CO;2

F. Chosson, J. Brenguier, and M. Schröder, Radiative impact of mixing processes in boundary layer clouds, Proc.14 th ICCP, pp.371-374, 2004.

. Klett, Black carbon and absorption of solar radiation by clouds, J. Geophys. Res, vol.101, issue.D18, pp.23365-23371, 1996.

P. E. Ciesielski, W. H. Schubert, and R. H. Johnson, Diurnal Variability of the Marine Boundary Layer during ASTEX, Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences, vol.58, issue.16, pp.2355-2376, 2001.
DOI : 10.1175/1520-0469(2001)058<2355:DVOTMB>2.0.CO;2

J. A. Coakley and T. Kobayashi, Broken Cloud Biases in Albedo and Surface Insolation Derived from Satellite Imagery Data, Journal of Climate, vol.2, issue.7, pp.721-730, 1989.
DOI : 10.1175/1520-0442(1989)002<0721:BCBIAA>2.0.CO;2

J. Cuxart, P. Bougeault, and J. L. Redelsperger, A turbulence scheme allowing for mesoscale and large-eddy simulations, Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society, vol.28, issue.2, pp.5621-5651, 2000.
DOI : 10.1002/qj.49712656202

A. Davis, A. Marshak, R. Cahalan, and W. Wiscombe, The Landsat Scale Break in Stratocumulus as a Three-Dimensional Radiative Transfer Effect: Implications for Cloud Remote Sensing, Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences, vol.54, issue.2, pp.241-260, 1997.
DOI : 10.1175/1520-0469(1997)054<0241:TLSBIS>2.0.CO;2

A. Davis, A. Marshak, W. Wiscombe, and R. Cahalan, Scale Invariance of Liquid Water Distributions in Marine Stratocumulus. Part I: Spectral Properties and Stationarity Issues, Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences, vol.53, issue.11, pp.1538-1558, 1996.
DOI : 10.1175/1520-0469(1996)053<1538:SIOLWD>2.0.CO;2

J. W. Deardorff, Stratocumulus-capped mixed layers derived from a three-dimensional model, Boundary-Layer Meteorology, vol.34, issue.4, pp.495-527, 1980.
DOI : 10.1007/BF00119502

J. W. Deardorff, Cloud Top Entrainment Instability, Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences, vol.37, issue.1, pp.131-147, 1980.
DOI : 10.1175/1520-0469(1980)037<0131:CTEI>2.0.CO;2

J. W. Deardorff, Stratocumulus-capped mixed layers derived from a three-dimensional model, Boundary-Layer Meteorology, vol.34, issue.4, pp.495-527, 1980.
DOI : 10.1007/BF00119502

J. W. Deardorff, On the entrainment rate of a stratocumulus-topped mixed layer, Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society, vol.27, issue.433, pp.563-582, 1976.
DOI : 10.1002/qj.49710243306

J. W. Deardorff, On the entrainment rate of a stratocumulus-topped mixed layer, Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society, vol.27, issue.433, pp.563-582, 1976.
DOI : 10.1002/qj.49710243306

D. Giuseppe, F. Tompkins, and A. M. , Effect of Spatial Organization on Solar Radiative Transfer in Three-Dimensional Idealized Stratocumulus Cloud Fields, Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences, vol.60, issue.15, pp.1774-1794, 2003.
DOI : 10.1175/1520-0469(2003)060<1774:EOSOOS>2.0.CO;2

D. P. Duda, G. L. Stephens, B. Stevens, and W. R. Cotton, Effects of Aerosol and Horizontal Inhomogeneity on the Broadband Albedo of Marine Stratus: Numerical Simulations, Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences, vol.53, issue.24, pp.243757-3769, 1996.
DOI : 10.1175/1520-0469(1996)053<3757:EOAAHI>2.0.CO;2

P. G. Duynkerke, The Stability of Cloud Top with Regard to Entrainment: Amendment of the Theory of Cloud-Top Entrainment Instability, Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences, vol.50, issue.3, pp.495-502, 1993.
DOI : 10.1175/1520-0469(1993)050<0495:TSOCTW>2.0.CO;2

P. G. Duynkerke, The Diurnal Variation of a Marine Stratocumulus Layer: A Model Sensitivity Study, Monthly Weather Review, vol.117, issue.8, pp.1710-1725, 1989.
DOI : 10.1175/1520-0493(1989)117<1710:TDVOAM>2.0.CO;2

B. Morcrette, J. Randall, D. A. Rikus, L. Roeckner, E. Royer et al., Intercomparison and interpretation of climate feedback processes in 19 atmospheric general circulation models, Journal of Geophysical Research, vol.95, pp.16601-16616, 1990.

K. F. Evans and W. J. Wiscombe, An algorithm for generating stochastic cloud fields from radar profile statistics, accepted by Atmospheric Research special issue on Clouds and Radiation, pp.263-289, 2004.

K. F. Evans, The Spherical Harmonics Discrete Ordinate Method for Three-Dimensional Atmospheric Radiative Transfer, Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences, vol.55, issue.3, pp.429-446, 1998.
DOI : 10.1175/1520-0469(1998)055<0429:TSHDOM>2.0.CO;2

D. Blomquist, A. Thornton, H. Bandy, and . Gerber, Observations of Entrainment in Eastern Pacific Marine Stratocumulus Using Three Conserved Scalars, 2005.

T. Faure, H. Isaka, and B. Guillemet, Neural network retrieval of cloud parameters of inhomogeneous and fractional clouds, Remote Sensing of Environment, vol.77, issue.2, pp.123-138, 2001.
DOI : 10.1016/S0034-4257(01)00199-7

Y. Fouquart, Radiative transfer in climate modelling NATO Advanced Study Institute on Physically-Based Modeling and Simulation of Climate and Climatic Changes, 1987.

Q. Fu, M. C. Cribb, H. W. Barker, S. K. Krueger, and A. Grossmann, Cloud Geometry Effects on Atmospheric Solar Absorption, Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences, vol.57, issue.8, pp.1156-1168, 2000.
DOI : 10.1175/1520-0469(2000)057<1156:CGEOAS>2.0.CO;2

R. D. Garreaud and R. Muñoz, The Diurnal Cycle in Circulation and Cloudiness over the Subtropical Southeast Pacific: A Modeling Study, Journal of Climate, vol.17, issue.8, pp.1699-1710, 2004.
DOI : 10.1175/1520-0442(2004)017<1699:TDCICA>2.0.CO;2

S. Guibert, Validation expérimentale des paramétrisations de l'effet indirect des aérosols, 2002.

G. Guo, P. Yang, Y. X. Hu, D. Winter, C. A. Hostelter et al., Manifestations of interference fluctuations of phase functions and backscattering cross sections for ice crystals with specific orientations, Journal of Optics A: Pure and Applied Optics, vol.5, issue.5, pp.520-527, 2003.
DOI : 10.1088/1464-4258/5/5/314

A. Guyot, J. Testud, and T. Ackermann, Determination of the radiative properties of stratiform clouds from a Nadir looking 95GHz Radar, J. Atmos. and Oceanic Tech, vol.17, pp.1-38, 2000.

J. E. Hansen and L. D. Travis, Light scattering in planetary atmospheres, Space Science Reviews, vol.120, issue.4, pp.527-610, 1974.
DOI : 10.1007/BF00168069

F. Hausdorff, Dimension und ???u???eres Ma???, Dimension und auberes mass, pp.157-179, 1919.
DOI : 10.1007/BF01457179

D. Jolivet, A. Feijt, P. Watts, Y. J. Gd-kaufman, I. Koren et al., Requirements for synergetic use of the ERM imager The effect of smoke, dust, and pollution aerosol on shallow cloud development over the Atlantic Ocean, ESA Contract Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A, vol.98, issue.102, pp.3-9439, 2000.

S. Mattoo and B. N. Holben, Size distribution and scattering phase function of aerosol particles retrieved from sky brightness measurements, Journal of Geophysical Research, vol.99, pp.10341-10356, 1994.

K. Kawamato, T. Nakajima, and T. Y. Nakajima, A Global Determination of Cloud Microphysics with AVHRR Remote Sensing, Journal of Climate, vol.14, issue.9, pp.2054-2068, 2001.
DOI : 10.1175/1520-0442(2001)014<2054:AGDOCM>2.0.CO;2

M. F. Khairoutdinov, D. A. Randall, and C. Demott, Simulations of the Atmospheric General Circulation Using a Cloud-Resolving Model as a Superparameterization of Physical Processes, Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences, vol.62, issue.7, pp.2136-2154, 2005.
DOI : 10.1175/JAS3453.1

S. W. Kim, S. U. Park, and C. Moeng, Entrainment processes in convective boundary layers with varying wind shear. Bound-Layer Meteor, pp.221-245, 2003.

S. A. Klein and D. L. Hartmann, The Seasonal Cycle of Low Stratiform Clouds, Journal of Climate, vol.6, issue.8, pp.1587-1606
DOI : 10.1175/1520-0442(1993)006<1587:TSCOLS>2.0.CO;2

T. Kobayashi, Effects Due to Cloud Geometry on Biases in the Albedo Derived from Radiance Measurements, Journal of Climate, vol.6, issue.1, pp.120-128
DOI : 10.1175/1520-0442(1993)006<0120:EDTCGO>2.0.CO;2

P. Koepke and M. Hess, Scattering functions of tropospheric aerosols: the effects of nonspherical particles, Applied Optics, vol.27, issue.12, pp.2422-2430, 1988.
DOI : 10.1364/AO.27.002422

H. Köhler, The nucleus in and the growth of hygroscopic droplets, Trans. Faraday Soc., vol.32, issue.0, pp.1152-1161, 1936.
DOI : 10.1039/TF9363201152

V. M. Krasnopolsky and H. Schiller, Some neural network applications in environmental sciences. Part I: forward and inverse problems in geophysical remote measurements, Neural Networks, vol.16, issue.3-4, pp.321-334, 2003.
DOI : 10.1016/S0893-6080(03)00027-3

S. K. Krueger, G. T. Maclean, and Q. Fu, Numerical Simulation of the Stratus-to-Cumulus Transition in the Subtropical Marine Boundary Layer. Part I: Boundary-Layer Structure, Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences, vol.52, issue.16, pp.2839-2850, 1995.
DOI : 10.1175/1520-0469(1995)052<2839:NSOTST>2.0.CO;2

H. Kuo and W. H. Schubert, Stability of cloud-topped boundary layers, Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society, vol.308, issue.482, pp.887-917, 1988.
DOI : 10.1002/qj.49711448204

. Cotton, Small-scale and meso-scale variability in marine boundary layer clouds, J, 2001.

D. C. Lewellen and W. Lewellen, Entrainment and Decoupling Relations for Cloudy Boundary Layers, Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences, vol.59, issue.20, pp.2966-2986, 2002.
DOI : 10.1175/1520-0469(2002)059<2966:EADRFC>2.0.CO;2

D. C. Lewellen and W. S. Lewellen, Large-Eddy Boundary Layer Entrainment, Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences, vol.55, issue.16, pp.2645-2665, 1998.
DOI : 10.1175/1520-0469(1998)055<2645:LEBLE>2.0.CO;2

D. K. Lilly, Models of cloud-topped mixed layers under a strong inversion, Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society, vol.23, issue.401, pp.292-309
DOI : 10.1002/qj.49709440106

Y. Liu, P. H. Daum, and J. Hallett, A Generalized Systems Theory for the Effect of Varying Fluctuations on Cloud Droplet Size Distributions, Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences, vol.59, issue.14, pp.2279-2289, 2002.
DOI : 10.1175/1520-0469(2002)059<2279:AGSTFT>2.0.CO;2

L. Liu, M. J. Mishchenko, S. Menon, A. Macke, and A. A. Lacis, The effect of black carbon on scattering and absorption of solar radiation by cloud droplets, Journal of Quantitative Spectroscopy and Radiative Transfer, vol.74, issue.2, pp.195-204, 2002.
DOI : 10.1016/S0022-4073(01)00232-1

N. G. Loeb and T. Varnai, Effect of cloud inhomogeneities on the solar zenith angle dependence of nadir reflectance, Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, vol.25, issue.D8, pp.9397-9395, 1997.
DOI : 10.1029/96JD03719

A. Los and P. G. Duynkerke, Parametrization of solar radiation in inhomogeneous stratocumulus: Albedo bias, Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society, vol.44, issue.575, pp.1593-1614, 2001.
DOI : 10.1002/qj.49712757507

M. K. Macvean and P. J. Mason, Cloud-Top Entrainment Instability through Small-Scale Mixing and Its Parameterization in Numerical Models, Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences, vol.47, issue.8, pp.1012-1030, 1990.
DOI : 10.1175/1520-0469(1990)047<1012:CTEITS>2.0.CO;2

A. Marshak, A. Davis, W. Wiscombe, and R. Cahalan, Radiative effects of sub-mean free path liquid water variability in stratiform coulds, Journal of Geophysical Research, vol.103, pp.1619557-19567, 1998.

A. Marshak, A. Davis, W. Wiscombe, and R. Cahalan, Radiative smoothing in fractal clouds, Journal of Geophysical Research, vol.17, issue.D12, pp.26247-26261, 1995.
DOI : 10.1029/95JD02895

URL : http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/summary?doi=10.1.1.385.7771

A. Marshak, A. Davis, W. Wiscombe, and G. A. Titov, The verisimilitude of the independent pixel approximation used in cloud remote sensing, Remote Sensing of Environment, vol.52, issue.1, pp.71-78, 1995.
DOI : 10.1016/0034-4257(95)00016-T

A. Marshak, A. Davis, W. Wiscombe, W. Ridgway, and R. F. Cahalan, Biases in Shortwave Column Absorption in the Presence of Fractal Clouds, Journal of Climate, vol.11, issue.3, pp.431-446, 1998.
DOI : 10.1175/1520-0442(1998)011<0431:BISCAI>2.0.CO;2

J. Maxwell and . Clerk, A Dynamical Theory of the Electromagnetic Field, Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London, vol.155, issue.0, pp.459-512
DOI : 10.1098/rstl.1865.0008

I. Melnikova, P. Domnin, V. Mikhailov, and V. Radionov, Optical Cloud Characteristics Derived from Measurements of Reflected or Transmitted Solar Radiation, Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences, vol.57, issue.13, pp.2135-2143, 2000.
DOI : 10.1175/1520-0469(2000)057<2135:OCCDFM>2.0.CO;2

G. Mie, Beiträge zur optic trüber medien, speziell kolloidalen metall-lösungen, Annalen der Physik, vol.25, pp.377-445, 1908.

C. Moeng, Entrainment Rate, Cloud Fraction, and Liquid Water Path of PBL Stratocumulus Clouds, Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences, vol.57, issue.21, pp.3627-3643, 2000.
DOI : 10.1175/1520-0469(2000)057<3627:ERCFAL>2.0.CO;2

C. Moeng, W. R. Cotton, B. Stevens, C. Bretherton, H. A. Rand et al., Simulation of a stratocumulus-topped PBL: Intercomparison among different numerical codes, pp.261-278, 1996.

T. Nakajima and T. Nakajima, Wide-Area Determination of Cloud Microphysical Properties from NOAA AVHRR Measurements for FIRE and ASTEX Regions, Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences, vol.52, issue.23, pp.4043-4059
DOI : 10.1175/1520-0469(1995)052<4043:WADOCM>2.0.CO;2

T. Nakajima and M. D. King, Determination of the Optical Thickness and Effective Particle Radius of Clouds from Reflected Solar Radiation Measurements. Part I: Theory, Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences, vol.47, issue.15, pp.1878-1893
DOI : 10.1175/1520-0469(1990)047<1878:DOTOTA>2.0.CO;2

T. Nauss, A. A. Kokhanovsky, T. Y. Nakajima, C. Reudenbach, and J. Bendix, The intercomparison of selected cloud retrieval algorithms, Atmospheric Research, vol.78, issue.1-2, pp.46-78, 2005.
DOI : 10.1016/j.atmosres.2005.02.005

A. Nenes, W. Conant, and J. H. Seinfeld, Black carbon radiative heating effects on cloud microphysics and implications for the aerosol indirect effect 2. Cloud microphysics, Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, vol.12, issue.D21, pp.10-1029, 2002.
DOI : 10.1029/2002JD002101

S. Nicholls, The structure of radiatively driven convection in stratocumulus, Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society, vol.40, issue.487, pp.487-511, 1989.
DOI : 10.1002/qj.49711548704

O. Hirok, W. , and C. Gautier, A three-dimensional radiative transfer model to investigate the solar radiation within a cloudy atmosphere. Part I: Spatial effects, J. Atmos, 1998.

L. Oreopoulos, M. Chou, M. Khairoutdinov, H. W. Barker, and R. F. Cahalan, Performance of Goddard earth observing system GCM column radiation models under heterogeneous cloud conditions, Atmospheric Research, vol.72, issue.1-4, pp.365-382, 2004.
DOI : 10.1016/j.atmosres.2004.03.025

L. Oreopoulos, A. Marshak, R. F. Cahalan, and G. Wen, Cloud threedimensional effects evidenced in Landsat spatial power spectra and autocorrelation functions, J. Goe. Res, vol.108, pp.1114777-14788, 2000.

G. W. Paltridge, Atmospheric Radiation and the Gross Character of Stratiform Cloud, Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences, vol.31, issue.1, pp.244-250, 1974.
DOI : 10.1175/1520-0469(1974)031<0244:ARATGC>2.0.CO;2

I. R. Paluch and D. H. Lenschow, Stratiform Cloud Formation in the Marine Boundary Layer, Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences, vol.48, issue.19, pp.2141-2157, 1991.
DOI : 10.1175/1520-0469(1991)048<2141:SCFITM>2.0.CO;2

F. Parol, J. Buriez, D. Crètel, and Y. Fouquart, The impact of cloud inhomogeneities on the Earth radiation budget: the 14 October 1989 I.C.E. convective cloud case study, Annales Geophysicae, vol.12, issue.2/3, pp.240-253, 1994.
DOI : 10.1007/s00585-994-0240-z

H. Pawlowska and J. Brenguier, An observational study of drizzle formation in stratocumulus clouds for general circulation model (GCM) parameterizations, Journal of Geophysical Research, vol.107, issue.D21, pp.863010-1029, 2003.
DOI : 10.1029/2002JD002679

H. Pawlowska and J. L. Brenguier, Microphysical properties of stratocumulus clouds during ACE-2, Tellus B, vol.52, issue.2, pp.868-887, 2000.
DOI : 10.1034/j.1600-0889.2000.00076.x

H. Pawlowska, J. L. Brenguier, and L. Schüller, Microphysical and radiative properties of stratocumulus, Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Part B: Hydrology, Oceans and Atmosphere, vol.24, issue.8, pp.927-932, 1999.
DOI : 10.1016/S1464-1909(99)00105-7

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00811611

D. Pino, J. Vilà-guerau-de-arellano, and P. Duynkerke, The Contribution of Shear to the Evolution of a Convective Boundary Layer, Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences, vol.60, issue.16, pp.1913-1926, 2003.
DOI : 10.1175/1520-0469(2003)060<1913:TCOSTT>2.0.CO;2

M. Planck, On the Theory of the Energy Distribution Law of the Normal Spectrum, Annalen der Physik, vol.4, p.553, 1901.
DOI : 10.1016/B978-0-08-012102-4.50013-9

S. Platnick, M. D. King, S. A. Ackerman, W. P. Menzel, B. A. Baum et al., The MODIS cloud products: algorithms and examples from terra, IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing, vol.41, issue.2, pp.459-473, 2003.
DOI : 10.1109/TGRS.2002.808301

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00820985

S. Platnick, J. Y. Li, M. D. King, H. Gerber, and P. V. Hobbs, A solar reflectance method for retrieving the optical thickness and droplet size of liquid water clouds over snow and ice surfaces, Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, vol.25, issue.D14, pp.15185-15199, 2001.
DOI : 10.1029/2000JD900441

S. Platnick, Vertical photon transport in cloud remote sensing problems, Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, vol.25, issue.D18, pp.22919-22935, 2000.
DOI : 10.1029/2000JD900333

H. R. Pruppacher and J. D. Klett, Microphysics of Clouds and Precipitation, Aerosol Science and Technology, vol.28, issue.4, 1997.
DOI : 10.1080/02786829808965531

F. Raes, T. Bates, F. Mcgovern, and M. Van-liedekerke, The 2 nd Aerosol Characterization Experiment (ACE-2): general overview and main results, pp.111-125, 2000.

V. R. Ramanathan, E. F. Cess, P. Harrisson, B. R. Minnis, E. A. Barkstrom et al., 1989: Cloud radiative forcing and climate: results of the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment, Science, pp.243-57

R. David and A. , Conditional Instability of the First Kind Upside-Down, Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences, vol.37, pp.125-130, 1980.

R. David and A. , Entrainment into a Stratocumulus Layer with Distributed Radiative Cooling, Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences, vol.37, pp.148-159, 1980.

D. A. Randall, J. A. Abeles, and T. G. Corsetti, Seasonal Simulations of the Planetary Boundary Layer and Boundary-Layer Stratocumulus Clouds with a General Circulation Model, Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences, vol.42, issue.7, pp.641-676, 1985.
DOI : 10.1175/1520-0469(1985)042<0641:SSOTPB>2.0.CO;2

L. Rayleigh, 1871: On the light from the sky, its polarization and colour, Philos. Mag, vol.41, pp.107-120274

R. Roebeling, D. Jolivet, and A. Feijt, Cloud optical thickness and cloud liquid water path retieval from multi-spectral NOAA AVHRR data, Proc. The 2001 EUMETSAT Meteorological Satellite Data User's Conference, pp.629-637, 2001.

R. Stephan, R. De, P. G. Duynkerke-harm, and J. J. Jonker, Large Eddy Simulation: How large is large enough?, Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences, vol.61, issue.4, pp.403-421, 2003.

S. R. Roode, P. G. De, and . Duynkerke, Observed Lagrangian Transition of Stratocumulus into Cumulus during ASTEX: Mean State and Turbulence Structure, Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences, vol.54, issue.17, pp.495-502, 1997.
DOI : 10.1175/1520-0469(1997)054<2157:OLTOSI>2.0.CO;2

D. Rosenfield, Consideration on daylight operations of 1.6 and 3.7 micron channels on Metop, p.5, 2003.

W. B. Rossow, C. Delo, and B. Cairns, Implications of the Observed Mesoscale Variations of Clouds for the Earth's Radiation Budget, Journal of Climate, vol.15, issue.6, pp.6557-585, 2002.
DOI : 10.1175/1520-0442(2002)015<0557:IOTOMV>2.0.CO;2

H. Russell, An overview of the ACE-2 Clear Sky Column closure experiment (CLEARCOLUMN), pp.463-483, 2000.

I. Sandu, P. Tulet, and J. Brenguier, Parameterization of the cloud droplet single scattering albedo based on aerosol chemical composition for L.E.S. modeling of boundary layer clouds, Geophys. Res. Lett, vol.32, pp.10-1029, 2005.

M. Schröder, Multiple scattering and absorption of solar radiation in the presence of three-dimensional cloud fields, 2004.

M. Schröder, R. Bennartz, J. Fischer, and T. Ruhtz, Airborne remote sensing of cloud radiative smoothing during the Baltex Bridge Cloud campaign, Atmospheric Research, vol.72, issue.1-4, pp.107-127, 2004.
DOI : 10.1016/j.atmosres.2004.03.011

M. Schröder, R. Bennartz, L. Schüller, R. Preusker, P. Albert et al., Generating cloudmasks in spatial high-resolution observations of clouds using texture and radiance information, International Journal of Remote Sensing, vol.23, issue.20, pp.4247-4261, 2002.
DOI : 10.1080/01431160110114547

L. Schüller, R. Bennart, J. Fischer, and J. L. Brenguier, An Algorithm for the Retrieval of Droplet Number Concentration and Geometrical Thickness of Stratiform Marine Boundary Layer Clouds Applied to MODIS Radiometric Observations, Journal of Applied Meteorology, vol.44, issue.1, pp.28-44, 2005.
DOI : 10.1175/JAM-2185.1

L. Schüller, J. L. Brenguier, and H. Pawlowska, Retrieval of microphysical, geometrical, and radiative properties of marine stratocumulus from remote sensing, Journal of Geophysical Research, vol.107, issue.D21, p.8631, 2003.
DOI : 10.1029/2002JD002680

L. Schüller, J. Fischer, W. Armbruster, and B. Bartsch, Calibration of high resolution remote sensing instruments in the visible and near infrared, Advances in Space Research, vol.19, issue.9, pp.1325-1334, 1997.
DOI : 10.1016/S0273-1177(97)00238-X

J. H. Seinfeld and S. P. Pandis, Atmospheric chemistry and physics, 1998.

C. A. Senior and J. F. Mitchell, Carbon Dioxide and Climate. The Impact of Cloud Parameterization, Journal of Climate, vol.6, issue.3, pp.393-418
DOI : 10.1175/1520-0442(1993)006<0393:CDACTI>2.0.CO;2

S. T. Siems and C. S. Bretherton, A Numerical Investigation of Cloud-Top Entrainment Instability and Related Experiments, Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society, vol.44, issue.507, pp.787-818, 1992.
DOI : 10.1002/qj.49711850702

S. T. Siems, A Numerical Investigation of Cloud-Top Entrainment Instability and Related Experiments, Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society, vol.44, issue.507, p.pp, 1991.
DOI : 10.1002/qj.49711850702

J. R. Snider and J. L. Brenguier, Cloud condensation nuclei and cloud droplet measurements during ACE-2, Tellus B, vol.52, issue.2, pp.828-842, 2000.
DOI : 10.1034/j.1600-0889.2000.00044.x

URL : http://doi.org/10.1034/j.1600-0889.2000.00044.x

B. Stevens, ATMOSPHERIC MOIST CONVECTION, Annual Review of Earth and Planetary Sciences, vol.33, issue.1, pp.605-643, 2005.
DOI : 10.1146/annurev.earth.33.092203.122658

URL : http://hdl.handle.net/11858/00-001M-0000-000E-BAD5-6

B. Stevens, D. H. Lenschow, and I. Faloona, On entrainment rates in nocturnal marine stratocumulus, Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society, vol.55, issue.595, pp.3469-3492, 2003.
DOI : 10.1256/qj.02.202

B. Stevens, Entrainment in stratocumulus-topped mixed layers, Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society, vol.56, issue.586, pp.2663-2691, 2002.
DOI : 10.1256/qj.01.202

B. Stevens and D. H. Lenschow, Observations, Experiments, and Large Eddy Simulation, Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, vol.82, issue.2, pp.2283-294, 2001.
DOI : 10.1175/1520-0477(2001)082<0283:OEALES>2.3.CO;2

B. Stevens, Cloud transitions and decoupling in shear-free stratocumulus-topped boundary layers, Geophysical Research Letters, vol.41, issue.16, pp.2557-2560, 2000.
DOI : 10.1029/1999GL011257

B. Stevens, C. Moeng, and P. Sullivan, Large-Eddy Simulations of Radiatively Driven Convection: Sensitivities to the Representation of Small Scales, Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences, vol.56, issue.23, pp.3963-3983, 1999.
DOI : 10.1175/1520-0469(1999)056<3963:LESORD>2.0.CO;2

D. E. Stevens, J. B. Bell, A. S. Almgren, V. E. Beckner, and C. A. Rendleman, Small-Scale Processes and Entrainment in a Stratocumulus Marine Boundary Layer, Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences, vol.57, issue.4, pp.567-581, 2000.
DOI : 10.1175/1520-0469(2000)057<0567:SSPAEI>2.0.CO;2

B. M. Stull-roland, P. H. Austin, and P. B. Krummel, An introduction to Boundary Layer Meteorology Atmospheric Sciences Library Variability of optical depth and effective radius in marine stratocumulus clouds, J. Atmos. Sci, vol.58, pp.2912-2926, 1988.

Y. Takano and K. N. Liou, Solar radiative transfer in cirrus clouds, 1989.

Y. Takano and K. N. Liou, Solar radiative transfer in cirrus clouds, 1989.

G. Thullier, M. Herse, P. C. Simon, D. Labs, H. Mandel et al., The visible solar irradiance from 350 to 850nm as measured by the SOLSPEC spectrometer during the ATLAS-1 mission, Solar Physics, vol.177, issue.1/2, pp.41-61, 1998.
DOI : 10.1023/A:1004953215589

A. M. Tompkins, A prognostic parameterization for the subgrid-scale cloud cover, J. Atmos. Sci, vol.59, pp.121917-1942, 2002.

J. D. Turton and S. Nicholls, A study of the diurnal variation of stratocumulus heating and drying observed during TOGA-COARE IOP, Geo. Res. Lett, vol.26, pp.3117-3120, 1987.

C. H. Twohy, M. D. Petters, J. R. Snider, B. Stevens, W. Tahnk et al., Evaluation of the aerosol indirect effect in marine stratocumulus clouds: Droplet number, size, liquid water path, and radiative impact, Journal of Geophysical Research, vol.54, issue.D20, p.820310, 1029.
DOI : 10.1029/2004JD005116

S. Twomey, Pollution and the planetary albedo, Atmospheric Environment (1967), vol.8, issue.12, pp.1251-1256, 1974.
DOI : 10.1016/0004-6981(74)90004-3

T. Varnai and A. Marshak, Observations of Three-Dimensional Radiative Effects that Influence MODIS Cloud Optical Thickness Retrievals, Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences, vol.59, issue.9, pp.1607-1618, 2002.
DOI : 10.1175/1520-0469(2002)059<1607:OOTDRE>2.0.CO;2

S. Wang, Q. And, and . Wang, Roles of Drizzle in a One-Dimensional Third-Order Turbulence Closure Model of the Nocturnal Stratus-Topped Marine Boundary Layer, Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences, vol.51, issue.11, pp.1559-1576, 1994.
DOI : 10.1175/1520-0469(1994)051<1559:RODIAO>2.0.CO;2

S. Wang, Modeling Marine Boundary-Layer Clouds with a Two-Layer Model: A One-Dimensional Simulation, Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences, vol.50, issue.24, pp.4001-4021, 1993.
DOI : 10.1175/1520-0469(1993)050<4001:MMBLCW>2.0.CO;2

P. D. Watts, C. T. Mutlow, A. J. Baran, and Z. A. , Study on Cloud Properties derived from Meteosat Second Generation Observations, Final Report, EUMETSAT ITT, issue.97, p.181, 1998.

R. M. Welch and B. A. Wielicki, Reflected Fluxes for Broken Clouds over a Lambertian Surface, Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences, vol.46, issue.10, pp.1384-1395, 1989.
DOI : 10.1175/1520-0469(1989)046<1384:RFFBCO>2.0.CO;2

K. T. Whitby, The physical characteristics of sulfur aerosols, Atmospheric Environment (1967), vol.12, issue.1-3, pp.135-159, 1978.
DOI : 10.1016/0004-6981(78)90196-8

R. Wood and D. L. Hartmann, Spatial variability of liquid water path in marine low cloud: Part I. Probability distributions and mesoscale cellular scales, J. Clim, 2004.

R. Wood and J. P. Taylor, Liquid water path variability in unbroken marine stratocumulus cloud, Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society, vol.37, issue.578, pp.2635-2662, 2001.
DOI : 10.1002/qj.49712757807

P. Yang and K. N. Liou, Single-scattering properties of complex ice crystals in terrestrial atmosphere, TITLE: Radiative transfer in heterogeneous boundary layer clouds AUTHOR: Frédérick CHOSSON ADVISOR, pp.223-248, 1998.

C. Lothar, S. Scientific, and . Field, Atmospheric Physics DATE OF DEFENSE: 27, PLACE OF DEFENSE: Centre National de Recherches Météorologiques Météo-France, 2006.