Abstract : The main contributors to socialization in contemporary societies are the family, the peer group, school and work.
Through their own modes and contents of transmission these contributors convey new generations with values, behaviours, and practices. These will be retained, transformed or rejected by the users and will play a part in building their identity.
This survey shows how, in immigration conditions, through family structure and education (i.e. respective roles, system of age groups, seniority and authority,) African parents transmit ritual and cultural rules and practices, and the extent to which such context modifies family education and the way parents perceive it.
At school, long and frequent contacts with the outside world gradually take shape. Norms and practices are confronted with others. The socializing process of children as generated by these contacts goes against family education. School and the effect of multicultural proximity, through peers and school educators act on the process of shaping the identity of these children.
The use of identity markers (clothing, food...) shows a synchronic variation between the public and private spheres and, depending on the individuals, reveals the dynamic nature of social and cultural identification systems. Children and teenagers fluctuate between two dynamics of identity assertion. They claim a family identity within the private sphere, and social identities with the outside world while adopting the norms established in their respective environments.
Identities are never fixed but are malleable and changeable, for the users, as well as for those who attribute them, a variability to be appraised and determined within the frame of a dynamic and interactionnist approach.