H. J. Alheid and F. Et-rummel, Acoustic emission during frictional sliding along shear plane in rock. First Conf, AE/MS Geol. Str. & Mat, pp.149-154, 1977.

F. Amelung and G. Et-king, Earthquake scaling laws for creeping and non-creeping faults, Geophysical Research Letters, vol.23, issue.5, pp.507-510, 1997.
DOI : 10.1029/97GL00287

D. Amitrano, Emission acoustique de roches intactes et fissurées en compression triaxiale, Prix Jeunes Chercheurs, XVIeme Rencontres de l'AUGC, pp.1-8, 1998.

D. Amitrano, J. Grasso, and D. Et-hantz, From diffuse to localized damage through elastic interaction, 1998.

D. Amitrano and D. Et-hantz, Acoustic emission of jointed and intact rocks during triaxial compression test, Int. Conf. on Mechanics of Jointed and Faulted Rock, pp.375-380, 1998.

D. Amitrano, D. Hantz, and Y. Et-orengo, Emission acoustique d'une roche fracturée. 11° Colloque Franco-Polonais en Mécanique des Roches Appliquée, pp.84-91, 1996.

D. Amitrano, D. Hantz, and Y. Et-orengo, Etude en laboratoire de l'émission acoustique des joints et du matériau rocheux, 1996.

P. Antoine and D. Amitrano, Risques generés par les grands mouvements de versant, Programme INTERREG 1 France-Italie, 1998.

B. K. Atkinson, Fracture mechanics of rock, Academic press, Geology series Discontinuities and their effect on rock mass, Aydan O. et Kawamoto T, pp.149-156, 1990.

M. R. Ayling, P. G. Meredith, and S. A. Murrell, Microcracking during triaxial deformation of porous rocks monitored by changes in rock physical properties, I. Elastic-wave propagation measurements on dry rocks, Tectonophysics, vol.245, issue.3-4, pp.205-221, 1995.
DOI : 10.1016/0040-1951(94)00235-2

G. Ballivy, J. E. Rhazi, and A. Et-bouja, Emission acoustique appliquée au diagnostic de rupture des ancrages injectés. Rock Support in Mining and Underground Construction, pp.451-457, 1992.

N. Barton and V. Et-choubey, The shear strength of rock joints in theory and practice. Rock Mechanics, pp.1-54, 1977.

B. Sliman, K. Mandereau, G. Besson, J. C. Et-chambon, and C. , La surveillance sismique: un outil d'aide à la planification des chantiers miniers sujets aux phénomènes dynamiques, Studia Geotechnica et Mechanica, vol.12, 1989.

J. D. Blacic and S. D. Et-malone, Preliminary analysis of microacoustic signals associated with rock fracture, Geophysical Research Letters, vol.4, issue.10, pp.477-480, 1977.
DOI : 10.1029/GL004i010p00477

D. J. Black, High Frequency acoustic emission in a coal mine. Rock Mechanics, pp.1063-1070, 1992.

D. P. Blair and A. T. Et-spathis, Attenuation of explosion-generated pulse in rock masses, Journal of Geophysical Research, vol.44, issue.2, pp.3885-3892, 1982.
DOI : 10.1029/JB087iB05p03885

F. K. Boadu and L. T. Long, The fractal character of fracture spacing and RQD, International Journal of Rock Mechanics and Mining Sciences & Geomechanics Abstracts, vol.31, issue.2, pp.31-127, 1994.
DOI : 10.1016/0148-9062(94)92802-9

M. Board, Numerical examination of mining-induced seismicity. Eurock, pp.89-111, 1996.

A. Bouja and G. Ballivy, The use of acoustic emission for identification of failures of tensional grouted rock anchors, 32th Conference on Rock Mechanics, pp.159-168, 1991.

B. H. Brady and E. T. Et-brown, Rock mechanics for underground mining, 1993.

S. R. Brown, Fluid flow through rock joints: The effect of surface roughness, Journal of Geophysical Research, vol.316, issue.B2, pp.1337-1347, 1987.
DOI : 10.1029/JB092iB02p01337

S. R. Brown, A note on the description of surface roughness using fractal dimension, Geophysical Research Letters, vol.84, issue.11, pp.1095-1098, 1987.
DOI : 10.1029/GL014i011p01095

S. R. Brown and C. H. Et-scholz, Broad bandwidth study of the topography of natural rock surfaces, Journal of Geophysical Research, vol.316, issue.B14, pp.12575-12582, 1985.
DOI : 10.1029/JB090iB14p12575

. Bui-editeur and J. R. Carr, Mécanique de la rupture fragile Discussion on Outer & al. paper "Difficulties with using continuous fractal theory for discontinuity surfaces, Int. J. Rock Mech. Min. Sci. & Geomech. Abstr. Int. J, vol.32, pp.3-9, 1978.

M. Castelli, M. Cravero, G. Iabichino, and C. Et-scavia, Tensile crack propagation in artificial specimens with two slits. Nagoya's 97, pp.163-168, 1997.

R. Chambon, Bifurcation and localisation in geomaterials. Alert geomaterials, 1996.

K. Chen, P. Bak, and S. P. Et-obukhov, Self-organized criticality in a crack-propagation model of earthquakes, Physical Review A, vol.43, issue.2, pp.625-630, 1991.
DOI : 10.1103/PhysRevA.43.625

C. Rong and G. N. , Acoustic emission of rocks under triaxial compression with various stress paths, International Journal of Rock Mechanics and Mining Sciences & Geomechanics Abstracts, vol.16, issue.6, pp.401-405, 1979.
DOI : 10.1016/0148-9062(79)90005-6

P. Chossat, B. Ciancara, and K. Et-takuska-wegrzyn, Les symétries brisées, Diffusion Belin Spectral description of seismoacoustic emission. Vth Conf, AE/MS Geol. Str. & Mat, pp.641-648, 1991.

N. G. Cook, Natural joints in rock: Mechanical, hydraulic and seismic behaviour and properties under normal stress, International Journal of Rock Mechanics and Mining Sciences & Geomechanics Abstracts, vol.29, issue.3, pp.198-223, 1992.
DOI : 10.1016/0148-9062(92)93656-5

L. S. Costin, A microcrack model for the deformation and failure of brittle rock, Journal of Geophysical Research: Solid Earth, vol.88, issue.B11, pp.9485-9492, 1983.
DOI : 10.1029/JB088iB11p09485

P. Cowie, C. Vanneste, and D. Et-sornette, Statistical physics model for the spatiotemporal evolution of faults, Journal of Geophysical Research: Solid Earth, vol.91, issue.B12, pp.98-21809, 1993.
DOI : 10.1029/93JB02223

P. A. Cowie, D. Sornette, and C. Et-vanneste, Multifractal scaling properties of a growing fault population, Geophysical Journal International, vol.122, issue.2, pp.457-469, 1995.
DOI : 10.1111/j.1365-246X.1995.tb07007.x

S. J. Cox and P. G. Meredith, Microcrack formation and material softening in rock measured by monitoring acoustic emissions, International Journal of Rock Mechanics and Mining Sciences & Geomechanics Abstracts, vol.30, issue.1, pp.11-24, 1993.
DOI : 10.1016/0148-9062(93)90172-A

B. R. Crawford, B. G. Smart, I. G. Main, and F. Et-liakopoulos-morris, Strength characteristics and shear acoustic anisotropy of rock core subjected to true triaxial compression, International Journal of Rock Mechanics and Mining Sciences & Geomechanics Abstracts, vol.32, issue.3, 1995.
DOI : 10.1016/0148-9062(94)00051-4

P. M. Davis and L. Et-knopoff, The elastic modulus of media containing strongly interacting antiplane cracks, Journal of Geophysical Research: Solid Earth, vol.8, issue.8, pp.18253-18258, 1995.
DOI : 10.1029/95JB00717

D. Gennes, P. Et-badoz-paris, . Plon, A. Delaplace, S. Roux et al., Les objets fragiles Localisation dans une interface endomageante sollicitée en traction. Ouvrages géomatériaux et interactions, pp.303-317, 1994.

J. H. Dieterich and B. D. Et-kilgore, Imaging surface contacts: power law contact distributions and contact stresses in quartz, calcite, glass and acrylic plastic, Tectonophysics, vol.256, issue.1-4, pp.219-239, 1996.
DOI : 10.1016/0040-1951(95)00165-4

E. Dion, Invitation à la théorie de l'information, Points, Sciences, Dubois A Etude de l'activité microsismique induite par l'exploitation de la taille Irma 1250 aux HBL, 1997.

J. D. Dunning, J. D. Leaird, and M. E. Et-miller, The kaiser effect and frictional deformation. IVth Conf, AE/MS Geol. Str. & Mat, pp.3-13, 1985.

E. Hassan, N. Desrues, J. Et-chambon, and R. , Numerical modelling of borehole instability using a non linear incremental model with bifurcation analysis. Nagoya's 97, pp.677-682, 1997.

. Evans, Fundamentals of acoustic emission, pp.209-227, 1979.

D. Fabre, J. Grasso, and Y. Et-orengo, Mechanical behaviour of deep rock core samples from a seismically active gas field, Pure and Applied Geophysics PAGEOPH, vol.17, issue.2, pp.201-219, 1991.
DOI : 10.1007/BF00876988

D. Fabre and J. Et-gustkiewicz, Poroelastic properties of limestones and sandstones under hydrostatic conditions, International Journal of Rock Mechanics and Mining Sciences, vol.34, issue.1, pp.127-134, 1997.
DOI : 10.1016/S1365-1609(97)80038-X

S. D. Falls and R. P. Et-young, Examination of the excavation-disturbed zone in the Swedish ZEDEX tunnel using acoustic emission and ultrasonic velocity measurements, Eurock'96, pp.1337-1344, 1996.

B. Feignier and R. P. Et-young, Failure mechanisms of microseismic events generated by a breakout development around and undreground opening. Rockbursts an Seismicity in Mines, pp.181-186, 1993.

N. Feknous, Etude à l'aide de la technique d'emission acoustique des mécanismes de détérioration des contacts roche-coulis de ciment, Thèse, Département de génie civil, 1991.

N. Feknous, G. Ballivy, and Z. Et-piasta, Monitoring of damaged injected rock with acoustic emission technique. Fracture of Concrete and Rock Cardiff, 1989.

Y. A. Fishman, Failure mecanism and shear strength of joint wall asperities. Rock Joints, pp.627-631, 1990.

F. Macias, O. Et-lemaire, and M. , ??l??ments finis stochastiques et fiabilit??, Revue Fran??aise de G??nie Civil, vol.114, issue.8, pp.247-284, 1998.
DOI : 10.1080/12795119.1997.9692119

A. Garcimartin, A. Guarino, L. Bellon, and S. Et-cilberto, Statistical Properties of Fracture Precursors, Physical Review Letters, vol.79, issue.17, p.3202, 1997.
DOI : 10.1103/PhysRevLett.79.3202

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/ensl-00179742

M. Ge and P. K. Et-kaiser, P-wave velocity back calculation with automatically detrmined microseismic event data. Rock Mechanics, pp.1071-1078, 1992.

S. D. Glaser and P. P. Et-nelson, System effects on AE waveforms from known sources. Vth Conf, AE/MS Geol. Str. & Mat, pp.573-587, 1991.

C. Godano, M. L. Alonzo, and A. Et-bottari, Multifractal analysis of the spatial distribution of earthquakes in southern Italy, Geophysical Journal International, vol.125, issue.3, pp.901-911, 1996.
DOI : 10.1111/j.1365-246X.1996.tb06033.x

C. Godano and L. Et-civetta, Multifractal analysis of Vesuvius volcano eruptions, Geophysical Research Letters, vol.77, issue.10, pp.1167-1170, 1996.
DOI : 10.1029/96GL00966

P. M. Goryainov, G. Y. Ivanyuk, and N. V. Et-sharov, Fractal analysis of seismic and geological data, Tectonophysics, vol.269, issue.3-4, pp.247-257, 1997.
DOI : 10.1016/S0040-1951(96)00162-X

T. N. Gowd, Factors affecting the acoustic emission response of triaxially compressed rock, International Journal of Rock Mechanics and Mining Sciences & Geomechanics Abstracts, vol.17, issue.4, pp.219-223, 1980.
DOI : 10.1016/0148-9062(80)91088-8

R. J. Greenfield, Amplitude and spectra from underground sources. First Conference on Acoustic Emission, Microseismic Activity in Geologic Structures and Materials, pp.405-425, 1977.

A. Guarino, A. Garcimartin, and S. Et-ciliberto, An experimental test of the critical behaviour of fracture precursors, The European Physical Journal B, vol.6, issue.1, pp.13-24, 1998.
DOI : 10.1007/s100510050521

J. Guilbert, Caractérisation des structures lithosphériques sous le Nord-Tibet et sous le Massif Central à partir des données sismologiques du programme lithoscope, Thèse de doctorat, 1995.

B. Gutemberg and C. F. Et-richter, Seismicity of the earth and associated phenomena, 1954.

E. Hakami and N. Et-barton, Aperture measurements and flow experiment using transparent replicas. Rock Joints, pp.571-577, 1990.

H. R. Hardy, Emergence of acoustic emission / microseismic activity as a tool in geomechanics. First conf. on acoustic emission / microseismic activity in geologic structures and materials, pp.13-31, 1977.

T. Hashida and H. Et-takahashi, Significance of AE crack monitoring in fracture toughness evaluation and non-linear rock fracture mechanics, International Journal of Rock Mechanics and Mining Sciences & Geomechanics Abstracts, vol.30, issue.1, pp.47-60, 1993.
DOI : 10.1016/0148-9062(93)90175-D

C. G. Hatton, I. G. Main, and P. G. Meredith, A comparison of seismic and structural measurements of scaling exponents during tensile subcritical crack growth, Journal of Structural Geology, vol.15, issue.12, pp.1485-1495, 1993.
DOI : 10.1016/0191-8141(93)90008-X

H. Hentshet and I. Et-prococcia, The infinite number of generalized dimensions of fractals and stange attractors, Physica, vol.8, pp.435-444, 1983.

S. Hergarten and H. J. Et-neugebauer, Self-organized criticality in a landslide model, Geophysical Research Letters, vol.1, issue.4, pp.801-804, 1998.
DOI : 10.1029/98GL50419

H. J. Herrmann and S. Et-roux, Statistical models for the fracture of disordered media, 1990.

J. Heudin, L'évolution au bord du Chaos Omori's power law aftershock sequences of microfracturing in rock fracture experiment, J. Geophys. Res, issue.B7, pp.92-6215, 1987.

T. Hirata, T. Satoh, and K. Et-ito, Fractal structure of spatial distribution of microfracturing in rock, Geophysical Journal International, vol.90, issue.2, pp.369-374, 1987.
DOI : 10.1111/j.1365-246X.1987.tb00732.x

E. Hoek, Strength of jointed rock masses, G??otechnique, vol.33, issue.3, pp.187-223, 1983.
DOI : 10.1680/geot.1983.33.3.187

D. J. Holcomb and L. W. Teufel, Acoustic emission during deformation of jointed rock. IIIrd Conf, AE/MS Geol. Str. & Mat, pp.37-44, 1981.

J. Huang, G. Chen, Y. Zhao, and R. Wang, An experimental study of the strain field developpement prior to failure of a marble plate under compression, Tectonophysics, vol.175, pp.269-284, 1990.

J. Huang and D. L. Et-turcotte, Fractal distributions of stress and strength and variations of b-value. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, pp.223-230, 1988.

O. Hungr and N. R. Et-morgenstern, High velocity ring shear tests on sand, G??otechnique, vol.34, issue.3, pp.415-421, 1984.
DOI : 10.1680/geot.1984.34.3.415

A. J. Hyett and J. A. Et-hudson, A photoelastic investigation of the stress state close to rock joints, pp.571-577, 1990.

M. Ishimoto and K. Et-iida, Observations sur les séismes entegistrés par le microsismographe construit dernièrement (1), Bull. Earthq. Res. Inst. Univ. Tokyo, vol.17, pp.443-478, 1939.

J. C. Jaeger and N. G. Et-cook, Fundamentals of rock mechanics Emission acoustique de joints rocheux, 1979.

P. K. Kaiser and C. A. Et-tang, Numerical simulation of cumulative damage and seismic energy release during brittle rock failure -Part II: Rib pillar collapse, Int. J. Rock Mech. Min. Sci. & Geomech. Abstr, vol.35, issue.2, pp.113-121, 1998.

P. K. Kaiser, D. D. Tannant, and D. R. Mccreath, Support of tunnels in burst-prone ground, 8° Int. Congr. on Rock Mechanics, pp.471-477, 1995.

H. Kawakata and M. Et-shimada, Frequency-magnitude relation of AE in fracture process of rocks at high confining pressures, Eighth International Congress on Rock Mechanics, ISRM, pp.207-210, 1995.

J. Kemeny and N. G. Et-cook, Effective moduli, non-linear deformation and strength of a cracked elastic solid, International Journal of Rock Mechanics and Mining Sciences & Geomechanics Abstracts, vol.23, issue.2, pp.107-118, 1986.
DOI : 10.1016/0148-9062(86)90337-2

A. W. Khair, Stress effect on AE. Vth Conf, AE/MS Geol. Str. & Mat, pp.29-43, 1991.

R. L. Kranz, Microcracks in rocks: A review, Tectonophysics, vol.100, issue.1-3, pp.449-480, 1983.
DOI : 10.1016/0040-1951(83)90198-1

S. Kumar and G. S. Et-bodvarsson, Fractal study and simulation of fracture roughness, Geophysical Research Letters, vol.93, issue.6, pp.701-704, 1990.
DOI : 10.1029/GL017i006p00701

K. Kurita and N. Et-fujii, Stress memory of crystalline rocks in acoustic emission, Geophysical Research Letters, vol.80, issue.1, pp.9-12, 1979.
DOI : 10.1029/GL006i001p00009

C. Lanchy, Etude spatio temporelle des séismes induits par l'exploitation de la mine de Gardanne : Mise en oeuvre d'outils d'analyse et approche fractale, 1996.

S. Lasocki, Time dependent rockburst hazard analysis. Fifth Conference on Acoustic Emission, Microseismic Activity in Geologic Structures and Materials, pp.277-284, 1991.

L. Ravalec, M. Et-gueguen, Y. Davis, P. M. Knopoff, and L. , Comment on "The elastic modulus of media containing strongly interacting antiplane cracks, J. Geophys. Res, vol.100, issue.B9, pp.18253-18258, 1995.

D. Legrand, A. Cisternas, and L. Et-dorbath, Multifractal analysis of the 1992 Erzincan Aftershock Sequence, Geophysical Research Letters, vol.146, issue.4, pp.933-936, 1996.
DOI : 10.1029/96GL00725

C. Li and E. Et-nordlund, Characteristics of acoustic emission during shearing of rock joints. Rock Joints, pp.251-258, 1990.

C. Li and E. Et-nordlund, Acoustic emission/microseismic observations of laboratory shearing tests on rock joints. Rockbursts an Seismicity in Mines, pp.349-353, 1993.

C. Li and E. Et-nordlund, Experimental verification of the Kaiser effect in rocks, Rock Mechanics and Rock Engineering, vol.19, issue.1, pp.333-351, 1993.
DOI : 10.1007/BF01027116

F. Liakopoulou-morris, I. G. Main, B. R. Crawford, and B. G. Smart, Microseismic properties of a homogeneous sandstone during fault nucleation and frictional sliding, Geophysical Journal International, vol.119, issue.1, pp.219-230, 1994.
DOI : 10.1111/j.1365-246X.1994.tb00923.x

D. A. Lockner, The role of acoustic emission in the study of rock fracture, International Journal of Rock Mechanics and Mining Sciences & Geomechanics Abstracts, vol.30, issue.7, pp.883-899, 1993.
DOI : 10.1016/0148-9062(93)90041-B

D. A. Lockner and J. D. Et-byerlee, Precursory AE patterns leading to rock fracture. Vth Conf, AE/MS Geol. Str. & Mat, pp.45-58, 1991.

D. A. Lockner and J. D. Byerlee, Quasi-static fault growth and shear fracture energy in granite, Nature, vol.350, issue.6313, pp.39-42, 1991.
DOI : 10.1038/350039a0

D. A. Lockner and T. R. Et-madden, A multiple-crack model of brittle fracture: 1. Non-time-dependent simulations, Journal of Geophysical Research: Solid Earth, vol.94, issue.B12, pp.19623-19642, 1991.
DOI : 10.1029/91JB01642

D. A. Lockner, J. B. Walsh, and J. D. Et-byerlee, Changes in seismic velocity and attenuation during deformation of granite, Journal of Geophysical Research, vol.31, issue.4, pp.5374-5378, 1977.
DOI : 10.1029/JB082i033p05374

I. G. Main, -value and the fractal two-point correlation dimension, Geophysical Journal International, vol.111, issue.3, pp.531-541, 1992.
DOI : 10.1111/j.1365-246X.1992.tb02110.x

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-01513485

I. G. Main, Earthquakes as critical phenomena: Implication for prabilistic seismic hazard analysis, Bull. Seismol. Soc. Am, vol.85, issue.5, pp.1299-1308, 1995.

I. G. Main, Statistical physics, seismogenesis, and seismic hazard, Reviews of Geophysics, vol.97, issue.9, pp.433-462, 1996.
DOI : 10.1029/96RG02808

I. G. Main, P. G. Meredith, J. R. Henderson, and P. R. Et-sammonds, Positive and negative feedback in the earthquake cycle: the role of pore fluids on states of criticality in the crust, Annali di Geofisica, vol.32, issue.6, pp.1461-1479, 1994.

I. G. Main, P. G. Meredith, and C. Jones, A reinterpretation of the precursory seismic b-value anomaly from fracture mechanics, Geophysical Journal International, vol.96, issue.1, pp.131-138, 1989.
DOI : 10.1111/j.1365-246X.1989.tb05255.x

M. Maksimovic, New description of the shear strength for rock joints, Rock Mechanics and Rock Engineering, vol.7, issue.2, pp.275-284, 1992.
DOI : 10.1007/BF01041808

B. Mandelbrot, Les objets fractals, p.4, 1975.

B. Mandelbrot, . Freeman, and B. Mandelbrot, Multifractal measures, especially for the geophysicist, Pure and Applied Geophysics PAGEOPH, vol.68, issue.1-2, pp.5-42, 1983.
DOI : 10.1007/BF00874478

M. H. Manghnani and R. Et-ramananantoandro, Compressional and shear wave velocities in granulite facies rocks and eclogites to 10 kbar, Journal of Geophysical Research, vol.3, issue.35, pp.5427-5446, 1974.
DOI : 10.1029/JB079i035p05427

C. D. Martin, R. P. Young, and D. S. Collins, Monitoring progressive failure around a tunnel in massive granite, 8° Int. Congr. on Rock Mechanics, pp.627-633, 1995.

M. Matsuzaki and H. Et-takayasu, Fractal features of the earthquake phenomenon and a simple mechanical model, Journal of Geophysical Research: Solid Earth, vol.131, issue.B12, pp.19925-19931, 1991.
DOI : 10.1029/91JB01884

I. L. Meglis, T. M. Chow, and R. P. Et-young, Progressive microcrack development in tests in Lac du Bonnet granite???I. Acoustic emission source location and velocity measurements, International Journal of Rock Mechanics and Mining Sciences & Geomechanics Abstracts, vol.32, issue.8, pp.32-741, 1995.
DOI : 10.1016/0148-9062(95)00014-8

I. L. Meglis, T. M. Chow, and R. P. Et-young, Progressive microcrack development in tests on Lac du Bonnet granite -II. Ultrasonic tomographic imaging, Int. J. Rock Mech. Min. Sci. & Geomech. Abstr, issue.8, pp.32-751, 1995.

P. G. Meredith, I. G. Main, and C. Jones, Temporal variations in seismicity during quasi-static and dynamic rock failure, Tectonophysics, vol.175, issue.1-3, pp.249-268, 1990.
DOI : 10.1016/0040-1951(90)90141-T

A. M. Milev, S. M. Spottiswoode, and K. R. Et-noble, Mine-induced seismicity at East Rand Proprietary Mines, International Journal of Rock Mechanics and Mining Sciences & Geomechanics Abstracts, vol.32, issue.6, pp.629-632, 1995.
DOI : 10.1016/0148-9062(95)00011-5

V. Mlakar, F. P. Hassani, and M. Et-momayez, Crack development and acoustic emission in potash rock, International Journal of Rock Mechanics and Mining Sciences & Geomechanics Abstracts, vol.30, issue.3, pp.305-319, 1993.
DOI : 10.1016/0148-9062(93)92732-6

K. Mogi, Magnitude frequency relation for elastic shocks accompanying fractures of various materials and some related problems in earthquakes, Bull. Earthquake Res. Inst, vol.40, pp.831-853, 1962.

J. Molina, Caractérisation de la fissuration des roches par amortissement d'ondes ultrasonores, Thèse de spécialité, 1981.

J. Molina and B. Et-wack, Crack field characterization by ultrasonic attenuation???preliminary study on rocks, International Journal of Rock Mechanics and Mining Sciences & Geomechanics Abstracts, vol.19, issue.6, pp.267-278, 1982.
DOI : 10.1016/0148-9062(82)91363-8

J. Mori and R. E. Et-abercombie, Depth dependence of earthquake frequency-magnitude distributions in California: Implications for rupture initiation, Journal of Geophysical Research: Solid Earth, vol.86, issue.B7, pp.15081-15090, 1997.
DOI : 10.1029/97JB01356

H. Moriwaki, Geomorphological prediction of the travel distance of a debris. The China-Japan Field Workshop on Landslide, 1987.

J. Muralha and J. G. Et-charrua-graça, An experience on the application of fractal theory to basic shear strength, pp.667-671, 1990.

H. Nagahama and K. Et-yoshii, Fractal dimension and fracture of brittle rocks, International Journal of Rock Mechanics and Mining Sciences & Geomechanics Abstracts, vol.30, issue.2, pp.173-175, 1993.
DOI : 10.1016/0148-9062(93)90710-U

J. A. Napier and D. F. Et-malan, A viscoplastic discontinuum model of time-dependent fracture and seismicity effects in brittle rock, International Journal of Rock Mechanics and Mining Sciences, vol.34, issue.7, pp.1075-1089, 1997.
DOI : 10.1016/S1365-1609(97)90201-X

C. Nicholson, Recent developments in rockburst and mine seismicity research, pp.1079-1086, 1992.

A. Nielsen, Acoustic emission source based on pencil load breaking, EWGAE meeting Rome, 1977.

K. T. Nihei and N. G. Et-cook, Seismic behavior of fractures under normal compression. Rock Mechanics, pp.989-997, 1992.

L. Obert, The microseismic method: discovery and early history. First conf. on acoustic emission / microseismic activity in geologic structures and materials, pp.11-12, 1977.

O. Connell, R. J. Et-budianski, and B. , Seismic velocities in dry and saturated cracked solids, Journal of Geophysical Research, vol.2, issue.35, pp.5412-5425, 1974.
DOI : 10.1029/JB079i035p05412

M. Ohnaka and K. Et-mogi, Frequency characteristics of acoustic emission in rocks under uniaxial compression and its relation to the fracturing process to failure, Journal of Geophysical Research, vol.13, issue.B5, pp.3873-3884, 1982.
DOI : 10.1029/JB087iB05p03873

Z. Olami, H. J. Feder, and K. Et-christensen, Self-organised criticality in a continuous, nonconservative cellular automaton modeling earthquake, Phys. Rev. Lett, issue.8, pp.68-1244, 1992.

A. O. Oncel, I. Main, O. Alptekin, and P. Et-cowie, Temporal variations in the fractal properties of seismicity in the North Anatolian Fault Zone between 31???E and 41???E, Pure and Applied Geophysics PAGEOPH, vol.117, issue.1, pp.147-159, 1996.
DOI : 10.1007/BF00876441

K. Otsuki, An empirical evolution law of fractal size frequency of fault population and its similarity law, Geophysical Research Letters, vol.14, issue.5, pp.671-674, 1998.
DOI : 10.1029/98GL00380

A. D. Outer, J. F. Kaashoek, and H. R. Et-hack, Difficulties with using continuous fractal theory for discontinuity surfaces, International Journal of Rock Mechanics and Mining Sciences & Geomechanics Abstracts, vol.32, issue.1, pp.3-9, 1995.
DOI : 10.1016/0148-9062(94)00025-X

A. D. Outer, J. F. Kaashoek, and H. R. Et-hack, Author's reply to Discussion by Dr J.R.Carr regarding the paper "Difficulties with using continuous fractal theory for discontinuity surfaces, Int. J. Rock Mech. Min. Sci. & Geomech. Abstr. Int. J. Rock Mech. Min. Sci. & Geomech. Abstr, vol.32, issue.334, pp.441-442, 1995.

T. Papaliangas, A. C. Lumsden, S. R. Hencher, and S. Et-manolopoulou, Shear strength of modelled filled rock joints, pp.275-283, 1990.

P. Peirera and J. , Shear strength of filled discontinuities, pp.283-287, 1990.

N. Phien-wej, U. B. Shrestha, and G. Et-rantucci, Effect of infill thickness on shear behavior of rock joints, pp.289-294, 1990.

G. Pickering, J. M. Bull, and D. J. Sanderson, Sampling power-law distributions, Tectonophysics, vol.248, issue.1-2, pp.1-20, 1995.
DOI : 10.1016/0040-1951(95)00030-Q

J. P. Piguet, La modelisation en mecanique des terrains et son application à l'exploitation minière, Thèse de Docteur es Sciences, 1983.

J. Pininska and W. M. Et-zubereck, Effects of discrete memory during rock deformation, Int. Conf. on Mechanics of Jointed and Faulted Rock, pp.393-400, 1998.

F. Plouraboué and P. Kurowski, Aperture of rough cracks, Physical Review E, vol.51, issue.3, pp.1675-1685, 1995.
DOI : 10.1103/PhysRevE.51.1675

A. A. Pollock, Metals and rocks: AE physics and technology in common and in contrast, First Conference on Acoustic Emission/Microseismic Activity in Geologic Structures and Materials, pp.383-401, 1977.

R. F. Poplawski, Seismic parameters and rockburst hazard at Mt Charlotte mine, International Journal of Rock Mechanics and Mining Sciences, vol.34, issue.8, pp.1213-1228, 1997.
DOI : 10.1016/S1365-1609(97)80072-X

L. J. Pyrac-nolte, The seismic response of fractures and the interrelations among fracture properties, International Journal of Rock Mechanics and Mining Sciences & Geomechanics Abstracts, vol.33, issue.8, pp.787-802, 1996.
DOI : 10.1016/S0148-9062(96)00022-8

F. Re and C. Et-scavia, Study of scale effects on the deformability modulus of rock by means of a discontinuous model, Int. Conf. on Mechanics of Jointed and Faulted Rock, pp.349-353, 1998.

F. Re, C. Scavia, and A. Et-zaninetti, Variation in contact areas of rock joint surfaces as a function of scale, International Journal of Rock Mechanics and Mining Sciences, vol.34, issue.3-4, pp.3-4, 1997.
DOI : 10.1016/S1365-1609(97)00164-0

M. D. Read, M. R. Ayling, P. G. Meredith, and S. A. Murrell, Microcracking during triaxial deformation of porous rocks monitored by changes in rock physical properties, II. Pore volumometry and acoustic emission measurements on water-saturated rocks, Tectonophysics, vol.245, issue.3-4, pp.223-235, 1995.
DOI : 10.1016/0040-1951(94)00236-3

Z. Reches and D. A. Et-lockner, Nucleation and growth of faults in brittle rocks, Journal of Geophysical Research: Solid Earth, vol.13, issue.16, pp.18159-18173, 1994.
DOI : 10.1029/94JB00115

L. Richier, Analyse de la sismicité induite à l'unité d'exploitation de Provence, 1994.

W. J. Roberds, M. Iwano, and H. H. Et-einstein, Probabilistic mapping of rock joint surfaces. Rock Joints, pp.571-577, 1990.

C. Rong, Acoustic emission of rocks under triaxial compression with various stress paths, International Journal of Rock Mechanics and Mining Sciences & Geomechanics Abstracts, vol.16, issue.6, 1979.
DOI : 10.1016/0148-9062(79)90005-6

V. Rudajev, J. Vilhelm, J. Kozak, and T. Et-lokajicek, Statistical precursors of instability of loaded rock samples based on acoustic emission, International Journal of Rock Mechanics and Mining Sciences & Geomechanics Abstracts, vol.33, issue.7, pp.743-748, 1996.
DOI : 10.1016/0148-9062(96)00023-X

M. Sakellariou, B. Nakos, and C. Et-mitsakaki, On the fractal character of rock surfaces, International Journal of Rock Mechanics and Mining Sciences & Geomechanics Abstracts, vol.28, issue.6, pp.527-533, 1991.
DOI : 10.1016/0148-9062(91)91129-F

S. Sakorai, A. Hiraoka, and K. Et-hori, Strain induced damage of rocks, Int. Conf. on Mechanics of Jointed and Faulted Rock, pp.21-27, 1998.

P. Sala, Etude expérimentale de la fissuration des roches par émission acoustique, 1982.

P. Sammonds and M. Et-ohnaka, Evolution of microseismicity during frictional sliding, Geophysical Research Letters, vol.147, issue.3, pp.699-702, 1998.
DOI : 10.1029/98GL00226

O. Sano, A note on the sources of acoustic emissions associated with subcritical crack growth, International Journal of Rock Mechanics and Mining Sciences & Geomechanics Abstracts, vol.18, issue.3, pp.259-263, 1981.
DOI : 10.1016/0148-9062(81)90981-5

K. Sassa, Special lecture: Geotechnical model for the motion of landslides. Fifth Symposium on Landslide, pp.37-55, 1988.

C. Scavia, A method for the study of crack propagation in rock structures, G??otechnique, vol.45, issue.3, pp.447-463, 1995.
DOI : 10.1680/geot.1995.45.3.447

C. Scavia, The effect of scale on rock fracture toughness: a fractal approach, G??otechnique, vol.46, issue.4, pp.683-693, 1996.
DOI : 10.1680/geot.1996.46.4.683

C. Scavia and M. Et-castelli, Analysis of the propagation of natural discontinuities in rock bridges. Eurock, pp.445-451, 1996.

C. Scavia, F. Re, and A. Et-zaninetti, Fracture surface fractality as a major factor in the evaluation of rock fracture energy. Eurock, pp.453-459, 1996.

C. Scavia, G. Viggiani, M. Castelli, and J. Et-desrues, An experimental and numerical study of shear fracture propagation in rock. Nagoya's 97, pp.175-180, 1997.

T. Schanz, J. Desrues, and P. A. Et-vermeer, Comparison of sand data on different plane strain devices. Nagoya's 97, pp.289-294, 1997.

J. Schmittbuhl, S. Gentier, and S. Et-roux, Field measurements of the roughness of fault surfaces, Geophysical Research Letters, vol.126, issue.8, pp.639-641, 1993.
DOI : 10.1029/93GL00170

J. Schmittbuhl, F. Schmitt, and C. Et-scholz, Scaling invariance of crack surfaces, Journal of Geophysical Research: Solid Earth, vol.94, issue.3, pp.5953-5973, 1995.
DOI : 10.1029/94JB02885

J. Schmittbuhl, J. P. Vilotte, and S. Et-roux, Reliability of self-affine measurements, Physical Review E, vol.51, issue.1, pp.131-147, 1995.
DOI : 10.1103/PhysRevE.51.131

J. Schmittbuhl, J. Vilotte, and S. Et-roux, A dissipation-based analysis of an earthquake fault model, Journal of Geophysical Research: Solid Earth, vol.191, issue.3/4, pp.27741-27764, 1996.
DOI : 10.1029/96JB02294

C. H. Scholz, The frequency-magnitude relation of microfracturing in rock and its relation to earthquakes, Bull. Seismol. Soc. Am, vol.58, issue.1, pp.399-415, 1968.

C. H. Scholz and J. T. Et-engelder, The role of asperity indentation and ploughing in rock friction ??? I, International Journal of Rock Mechanics and Mining Sciences & Geomechanics Abstracts, vol.13, issue.5, pp.149-154, 1976.
DOI : 10.1016/0148-9062(76)90819-6

H. C. Scholz and G. Senfaute, The mechanics of earthquakes and faulting La surveillance microsismique de l'exploitation souterraine du charbon aux houillières de Provence : Contribution à la detection des risques de coups de terrains par écoute microsismique, Thèse de doctorat, 1990.

G. Senfaute and C. Chambon, Contribution à la recherche des critères microsismiques d'evaluation d'un danger de coups de terrains, North American Rock Mechanics Symposium. Workshop on Induced Seismicity, pp.1-10, 1996.

G. Senfaute and J. P. Et-josien, Suvi géotechnique d'Irma 1250, Bilan de l'année, 1997.

M. Seto, M. Utagawa, and K. Et-katsuyama, The relation between the variation of AE hypocenters and the Kaiser effect of Shirahama sandstone, Eighth International Congress on Rock Mechanics, ISRM, pp.201-205, 1995.

K. R. Shah and J. F. Et-labuz, Damage mechanisms in stressed rock from acoustic emission, Journal of Geophysical Research: Solid Earth, vol.19, issue.B8, pp.15527-15539, 1995.
DOI : 10.1029/95JB01236

L. P. Shi, T. H. Huang, and J. J. Hung, A study on the uniaxial compression behaviors and acoustic emission characteristics of rocks in Taiwan, Eighth International Congress on Rock Mechanics, ISRM, pp.211-214, 1995.

N. Soga, H. Mizutani, H. Spelzter, and R. J. Et-martin, The effect of dilatancy on velocity anisotropy in westerly granite, Journal of Geophysical Research, vol.80, issue.B9, pp.4451-4458, 1978.
DOI : 10.1029/JB083iB09p04451

T. R. Stacey and W. D. Et-ortlepp, Rockburst mechanisms and tunnel support in rockburst conditions, Geomechanics, vol.93, pp.39-46, 1994.

A. N. Stavrogin and B. Et-tarasov, Some results obtained with high-stiffness rock testing systems, Int. Soc. Rock Mech. News J, vol.3, issue.2, pp.6-19, 1995.

D. Stead and Z. Et-szczepanik, Acoustic emission during uniaxial creep en potash. Fifth Conference on Acoustic Emission, Microseismic Activity in Geologic Structures and Materials, pp.99-111, 1991.

C. A. Tang, Numerical simulation of progressive rock failure and associated seismicity, International Journal of Rock Mechanics and Mining Sciences, vol.34, issue.2, pp.249-261, 1997.
DOI : 10.1016/S0148-9062(96)00039-3

C. A. Tang and P. K. Kaiser, Numerical Simulation of Cumulative Damage and Seismic Energy Release During Brittle Rock Failure???Part I: Fundamentals, International Journal of Rock Mechanics and Mining Sciences, vol.35, issue.2, pp.113-121, 1998.
DOI : 10.1016/S0148-9062(97)00009-0

M. Thiercelin, Application de l'emission acoustique à l'étude de la fissuration et de la rupture des roches, 1980.

M. Trombik and W. Et-zubereck, Microseismic research in polish coal mines, Third Conference on Acoustic Emission/Microseismic Activity in Geologic Structures and Materials, pp.169-194, 1981.

D. L. Turcotte, A fractal model for crustal deformation, Tectonophysics, vol.132, issue.1-3, pp.261-269, 1986.
DOI : 10.1016/0040-1951(86)90036-3

T. E. Unander, The effect of attenuation on b-values in acoustic emission measurements ??? A theoretical investigation, International Journal of Rock Mechanics and Mining Sciences & Geomechanics Abstracts, vol.30, issue.7, pp.947-950, 1993.
DOI : 10.1016/0148-9062(93)90050-N

B. Velde, D. Moore, A. Badri, and B. Et-ledesert, Fractal and length analysis of fractures during brittle to ductile changes, Journal of Geophysical Research: Solid Earth, vol.305, issue.B7, pp.98-11935, 1993.
DOI : 10.1029/92JB02663

P. Volant and J. Et-grasso, The finite extension of fractal geometry and power law distribution of shallow earthquakes: A geomechanical effect, Journal of Geophysical Research: Solid Earth, vol.31, issue.B11, pp.21879-21889, 1994.
DOI : 10.1029/94JB01176

P. Volant, J. Grasso, J. Chatelain, and M. Et-frogneux, b-Value, aseismic deformation and brittle failure within an isolated geological object: Evidences from a dome structure loaded by fluid extraction, Geophysical Research Letters, vol.31, issue.3, pp.1149-1152, 1992.
DOI : 10.1029/92GL01074

J. B. Walsh, The effect of cracks on the compressibility of rock, Journal of Geophysical Research, vol.19, issue.3, pp.381-389, 1965.
DOI : 10.1029/JZ070i002p00381

J. J. Walsh and J. Et-watterson, Fractal analysis of fracture patterns using the standard box-counting technique: valid and invalid methodologies, Journal of Structural Geology, vol.15, issue.12, pp.1509-1512, 1993.
DOI : 10.1016/0191-8141(93)90010-8

T. Watanabe and K. Et-sassa, Velocity and amplitude of P-waves transmitted through fractured zones composed of multiple thin low-velocity layers, International Journal of Rock Mechanics and Mining Sciences & Geomechanics Abstracts, vol.32, issue.4, pp.313-324, 1995.
DOI : 10.1016/0148-9062(95)00008-5

W. R. Wawersick and C. Et-fairhurst, A study of brittle rock fracture in laboratory compression experiments, International Journal of Rock Mechanics and Mining Sciences & Geomechanics Abstracts, vol.7, issue.5, pp.561-575, 1970.
DOI : 10.1016/0148-9062(70)90007-0

J. Weeks, D. Lockner, and J. Et-byerlee, Change in b-value during movement on cut surfaces in granite, Bull. Seismol. Soc. Am, vol.68, issue.2, pp.333-341, 1978.

J. Weiss, The role of attenuation on acoustic emission amplitude distributions and b-values, Bull. Seismol. Soc. Am, vol.87, issue.5, pp.1362-1367, 1997.

J. Weiss and M. Gay, Fracturing of ice under compression creep as revealed by a multifractal analysis, Journal of Geophysical Research: Solid Earth, vol.24, issue.B10, pp.24005-24016, 1998.
DOI : 10.1029/98JB01758

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00645883

J. Weiss and J. R. Et-grasso, Acoustic Emission in Single Crystals of Ice, The Journal of Physical Chemistry B, vol.101, issue.32, pp.6113-6117, 1997.
DOI : 10.1021/jp963157f

W. W. Wepfer and N. I. Et-christensen, A seismic velocity-confining pressure relation, with applications, International Journal of Rock Mechanics and Mining Sciences & Geomechanics Abstracts, vol.28, issue.5, pp.451-456, 1991.
DOI : 10.1016/0148-9062(91)90083-X

I. G. Wong, Recent developments in rockburst and mine seismicity research. Rock Mechanics, pp.1103-1112, 1992.

T. F. Wong and Y. Zhao, Effects of loading point velocity on frictional instability behavior, Tectonophysics, vol.175, pp.177-195, 1990.

H. U. Xian-qin and D. M. Et-cruden, Une table inclinable et portative pour la d??termination sur le terrain des angles de frottement des discontinuit??s dans les massifs rocheux, Bulletin of the International Association of Engineering Geology, vol.38, issue.1, pp.59-62, 1992.
DOI : 10.1007/BF02595034

H. Xie, Fractals in rock mechanics, 1993.

H. Xie and W. G. Et-pariseau, Fractal character and mechanism of rock bursts, International Journal of Rock Mechanics and Mining Sciences & Geomechanics Abstracts, vol.30, issue.4, pp.343-350, 1993.
DOI : 10.1016/0148-9062(93)91718-X

H. J. Xu, B. Bergersen, and K. Et-chen, Self-organized ruptures in an elastic medium: a possible model for earthquakes, Journal of Physics A: Mathematical and General, vol.25, issue.22, pp.1251-1256, 1992.
DOI : 10.1088/0305-4470/25/22/005

S. Xu and M. H. Et-de-freitas, Use of a rotary shear box for testing the shear strength of rock joints, G??otechnique, vol.38, issue.2, pp.301-309, 1988.
DOI : 10.1680/geot.1988.38.2.301

Y. Yamakawa and K. Et-ikeda, Bifurcation point search for geomaterials. Nagoya's 97, pp.3-8, 1997.

Z. Y. Yang and C. C. Et-chuang, A stick-slip shear model of rough joints for rock slope. Landslide, pp.1445-1450, 1996.

X. Yu and B. Et-vayssade, Joint profiles and their roughness parameters, International Journal of Rock Mechanics and Mining Sciences & Geomechanics Abstracts, vol.28, issue.4, pp.333-336, 1991.
DOI : 10.1016/0148-9062(91)90598-G

S. Zapperi, A. Vespignani, and E. Stanley, Plasticity and avalanche behaviour in microfracturing phenomena, Nature, vol.38814, pp.658-660, 1997.

R. W. Zimmerman, D. W. Chen, and J. C. Long, Hydromechanical coupling between stress, stiffness and hydraulic conductivity of rock joints and fracture, pp.571-577, 1990.

S. Zongqi and X. Et-fang-ming, Study of rock joint surface feature and it's classification. Rock Joints, pp.101-107, 1990.

W. Zubereck, B. Zogala, and R. Et-dubiel, Precursory AE patterns leading to rock fracture. VIth Conf The pennsylvania State University, Trans Tech Publication, Clausthal-Zellerfeld, AE/MS Geol. Str. & Mat. Germany. Annexes Annexes Annexes, vol.1, pp.157-168, 1998.

. Amplitude and .. Et-temps-de-montée, 238 1.2. Relations entre l'amplitude maximale, l'énergie et nombre de coups, p.238

M. Distribution, 245 3.1. Méthode d'ajustement, p.247