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Emission acoustique des roches et endommagement: Approches expérimentale et numérique, Application a la sismicité minière

Abstract : The loading of rocks involves the emission of elastic waves (acoustic emission, AE) as well as the modification of mechanical properties. AE is a direct mean to follow the damage evolution from diffuse state to the localized one when a discontinuity is formed. AE can also be considered as low scale model for earth crust seismicity or mining induced seismicity as it reveals power law distributions (b-value) indicating scaling invariance.
The first part of this work is dedicated to an experimentzal study of the AE of the Sidobre's granite under triaxial compression. We show that AE is related to a non linear behavior and can be used as an indicator of damage. The increase of confining pressure leads to a more ductile behavior and a decreased b-value.
In the second part we propose an original numerical model based on elastic damage within finite element scheme. It allows us to simulated the macroscopic behavior ranging from brittle to ductile, spatial distribution of the damage from diffuse to localized, power law distribution of damage events with a single control parameter: i.e. internal friction. Using experimental values of this parameter we succeed in reproducing experimental observations related to the confining pressure increase.
The third part concerns a study of mining induced seimicity. The critical behavior of power law distribution of events size is propsoed as a monitoring criterion. We also study the relationship between the b-value and the spatial distributions of the seimic events.
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Submitted on : Thursday, September 20, 2007 - 12:00:23 PM
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David Amitrano. Emission acoustique des roches et endommagement: Approches expérimentale et numérique, Application a la sismicité minière. Sciences de la Terre. Université Joseph-Fourier - Grenoble I, 1999. Français. ⟨tel-00173626⟩

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