Skip to Main content Skip to Navigation
Theses

Caractérisation des traits biologiques et des processus évolutifs d'une espèce envahissante en France : Ambrosia artemisiifolia L.

Abstract : Ambrosia artemisiifolia L. (Asteraceae) is an annual plant which was not intentionally introduced from North America in Europe since the end of 19th century. In France, this invasive species causes important threats for human public health due to its allergenic pollen. This species is also a troublesome weed in spring crops, but it also colonizes all other human disturbed habitats. Nevertheless, its spread in natural environments seems to be limited to disturbed ones such as riverbanks.
The aim of this thesis was to study through a multidisciplinary approach, the different biological, genetic and ecological species characteristics, as well as the characteristics of invaded communities which could explain its invasive success in France.
A bibliographic synthesis was realized on the different parameters involved in invasive processes, but also on the current knowledge of A. artemisiifolia.
The different life history traits of the species revealed a considerable variability, more particularly for seeds, which suggested the existence of an adapted strategy to colonize variable environments. The high phenotypic plasticity observed in A. artemisiifolia explained in part the success of its invasion. The whole population dynamics (rate of increase) is also different among habitats. The limiting factor to the colonization or the maintaining of populations is definitely the habitat stabilization. The occurrence of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in the invaded communities may be a facilitating factor in the invasive process of the species.
In addition, the species invasiveness can be also explain by the high levels of genetic diversity observed both in native as well as in introduced populations using different molecular markers (ADNcp, AFLP). These results also suggest that the species was introduced several times, from different origins and with a high number of founders.
Finally, it has been showed that A. artemisiifolia possessed an large ecological amplitude, and that it was not specifically associated with a particular vegetal group. Therefore, the species is able to colonize different ecological environments and is potentially able to spread out of its present distribution.
The knowledge obtained through this thesis shows that the invasion of A. artemisiifolia is a multifactorial phenomenom. The invasion of that species depends first of all to the conditions met during its introduction and spread (disturbed habitats, anthropogenic dispersal). Then, its generalist character enables it to respond to the abiotic conditions encountered. Our results suggest that in the present context, A. artemisiifolia has a considerable potential to spread through France and Europe.
Document type :
Theses
Complete list of metadatas

https://tel.archives-ouvertes.fr/tel-00163962
Contributor : Boris Fumanal <>
Submitted on : Thursday, October 18, 2007 - 2:35:52 PM
Last modification on : Wednesday, November 18, 2020 - 10:24:05 AM
Long-term archiving on: : Sunday, April 11, 2010 - 11:14:15 PM

Identifiers

  • HAL Id : tel-00163962, version 1
  • PRODINRA : 251056

Collections

Citation

Boris Fumanal. Caractérisation des traits biologiques et des processus évolutifs d'une espèce envahissante en France : Ambrosia artemisiifolia L.. Ecologie, Environnement. Université de Bourgogne, 2007. Français. ⟨tel-00163962⟩

Share

Metrics

Record views

1634

Files downloads

3258