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Dynamiques spatiale et démographique de la pie bavarde Pica pica en France : implications pour la gestion

Abstract : Urbanization offers new ecological niches for the establishment of life in cities, leading ecologists to question about the processes shaping the distributions of species. Basically, some animals and plants may fail to occupy urban habitats but other ones succeed better in exploiting resources. The black-billed magpie is a good example of such an adaptation to cities in Europe. Surprisingly, the magpie is also declining at countryside in France contrary to urban populations. What factors and mechanisms explain the difference of dynamics between habitats? This is the first goal of my thesis. Actually, the magpie is known to predate birds at nest leading humans to control magpie populations to conserve biodiversity. Evidences of the impact of magpies on prey conservation in cities are still weak, yet its density is increasing. The second issue of my thesis concerns the evaluation of the impact of the magpie expansion on bird biodiversity and to plan efficient programs of control if necessary.
Globally, I found out that dynamics of magpie populations depend on the level of landscape urbanisation and on the level of control activities through trapping in France. Cities improve the amount of food sources leading to a better fecundity of pairs in cities. At countryside, the trapping would lead to a decrease of the survival of populations and its decline. The carrion crow, that predates and competes with magpies, would be harmless.
Finally, I experimentally proved that the elevated magpie densities in urban parks are not a threat for bird conservation. In any cases, magpie populations need to be monitored because prey-predator interactions are evolving. Optimal strategies to control populations through trapping activities are proposed if necessary.
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https://tel.archives-ouvertes.fr/tel-00153362
Contributor : François Chiron <>
Submitted on : Sunday, June 10, 2007 - 8:47:07 AM
Last modification on : Wednesday, December 9, 2020 - 3:10:11 PM
Long-term archiving on: : Thursday, April 8, 2010 - 7:28:45 PM

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François Chiron. Dynamiques spatiale et démographique de la pie bavarde Pica pica en France : implications pour la gestion. Ecologie, Environnement. Museum national d'histoire naturelle - MNHN PARIS, 2007. Français. ⟨tel-00153362⟩

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