Abstract : The present work is a study in the historiography of science. Its goal is to provide some theoretical tools for studying the evolution of science as a social and cognitive phenomenon. It aims at showing that some concepts and frames of analysis drawn from cognitive anthropology are fruitful tools for the scientific study of science. The theories that I advocate using are the epidemiology of representation and the theory of distributed cognition. The added value of these theories stems in great part from their enabling to integrate results from cognitive and social studies of science.