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Anisotropies magnétique et de porosité des argilites du Callovo-Oxfordien du laboratoire souterrain de l'Andra (Meuse/Haute-Marne, Bassin de Paris)

Abstract : In order to test the feasibility of nuclear waste storage, Andra, the French Agency in charge of radioactive waste management, gave us the opportunity to study preserved specimens of Jurassic clay-rich rocks from eastern Paris Basin. These rocks, deposited during the Callovian and beginning of the Oxfordian, are dark- to light-grey marls that consist mainly in a mixture of clay, calcite and silt. Core-specimens regularly collected along the Callovo-Oxfordian formation from several vertical and oblique boreholes, were subjected to a magnetic mineralogy study, and to a petrofabric study with respect to the geographical frame, itself related to a study of the pore network.
The mineralogy study helps to characterize the nature of the para- and -ferrimagnetic fractions at the origin of the magnetic susceptibility and remanence which vary according to the clay/calcite/silt ratios, the latter being mostly made of detrital grains of magnetite. In the clay-rich rocks (illite and smectites), the ferrimagnetic fraction is also made of authigenic sulfides, possibly greigite, which accompany the ubiquitous framboids of pyrite. This fraction seems to equate with the soft coercive fraction which was used to re-orient the vertical borehole cores with respect to the present magnetic north. The hard fraction equates with the iron-oxides, in agreement with the random nature of the natural remanence. Hence, the coexistence in the same sediment of iron-sulfides and iron-oxides is related to distinct origins rather than to variable conditions during sedimentation or diagenesis. Preservation of these species is attributed to the very low permeability that the sediment reached after its compaction.
The anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS) reflects the zone-axis organization of the clay minerals, and eventually the shape fabric of the ferromagnetic fraction. Expectedly, the short axis of the AMS (K3) is vertical (perpendicular to bedding) with an anisotropy degree on the order of 0,3-5%, and the long axis (K1) is constantly trending around N-S in the clay-rich levels and around NW-SE in the silt-enriched levels. This linear fabric is argued to derive either from an anisotropic compaction toward the depocenter, or to parallel the direction of the currents coming from the NE (Bohemian and Rhenan massifs) or from the NW (London-Brabant massif) during sedimentation.
This mineral fabric is compared to the anisotropy of the pore network connectivity in representative lithologies of the formation. We performed high pressure mercury injections parallel to the AMS axes, in order to reflect the anisotropy of connectivity, and AMS measurements after impregnation with a ferrofluid at different pressures, in order to obtain the shapes of the pore network. From these data, we tentatively propose three pore models, the first one for the silt-enriched specimens where vertically pathways seem to control the connectivity, the second one for the carbonate-enriched specimens where the highest connectivity is parallel to bedding, and which is almost isotropic in the bedding plane in spite of an anisotropic pore structure, and the third one for the clay-enriched specimens (at the site of the Andra Laboratory), where the highest connectivity, also parallel to bedding, parallels the magnetic lineation.
In conclusion, in addition to this petrophysical modelling of the pore network, in relation with the rock texture at the micro-scale, our mineralogical approach helped to confirm (and locally refine) the sequential stratigraphy of this part of the Jurassic, corresponding to a colder event in-between two carbonaceous-plateforms. Our mineralogical approach added to fabric considerations helped us to propose an original dynamical scenario of the sedimentary supplies.
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Submitted on : Thursday, March 15, 2007 - 11:18:19 AM
Last modification on : Friday, October 23, 2020 - 4:52:31 PM
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Lionel Eseban. Anisotropies magnétique et de porosité des argilites du Callovo-Oxfordien du laboratoire souterrain de l'Andra (Meuse/Haute-Marne, Bassin de Paris). Géologie appliquée. Université Paul Sabatier - Toulouse III, 2006. Français. ⟨tel-00136774⟩

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