Abstract : This thesis, entitled « Polarisation attraction and incoherent modulation instability in optical fibers », presents a theoretical and experimental study of two new processes from the nonlinear optic in optical fibers domain. We introduce in the first chapter some theoretical notions useful for the comprehension of this work. Then, we demonstrate in the second chapter that it is possible to generate some modulation instability in optical fibers using a partially coherent optical beam. We highlight and observe the main properties of the phenomenon. We study the polarisation attraction in isotropic fibers process in the third chapter. Our work proves the existence of the phenomenon, and permits to define its main characteristics. We complete our study by a look to the potential telecom applications of the attractor.