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De l'identification des vecteurs du virus West Nile à la modélisation du risque d'infection dans le sud de la France

Thomas Balenghien 1
1 EPSP
TIMC - Techniques de l'Ingénierie Médicale et de la Complexité - Informatique, Mathématiques et Applications, Grenoble - UMR 5525, Unité biomathématiques et épidémiologie
Abstract : After 35 years of apparent absence, the West Nile virus (WNV) has been responsible for sporadic human cases and equine outbreaks in the French Mediterranean coast. We studied which species could be involved in WNV transmission cycles in the Camargue (main WNV focus).
To identify vector species, we carried out bird, horse and human-baited trap collections from May to October 2004, searched for WNV in field-collected mosquitoes and conducted experimental infections of potential vectors. To assess the infection risk, the vectorial capacity formula was generalized to several host and vector species and spatialized. In order to estimate the spatio-temporal vector density, we proposed an approach relying on the modelling of population dynamics and the mapping of vector breeding sites and host-seeking areas.
Conclusions are that Culex modestus Ficalbi may be the main enzootic (transmission between birds) and epidemic WNV vector in wetlands. Its distribution needs to be better defined to assess its role in dry areas. Culex pipiens L. may be an important enzootic vector in the whole Camargue and the main epidemic vector in dry areas. Genetic or environmental factors determining its host feeding pattern are essential to understand WNV transmission to mammals. Finally, the most abundant Aedes and Anopheles species probably have a minor role in WNV transmission.
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Submitted on : Wednesday, February 7, 2007 - 5:15:52 PM
Last modification on : Thursday, November 19, 2020 - 3:56:08 PM
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Thomas Balenghien. De l'identification des vecteurs du virus West Nile à la modélisation du risque d'infection dans le sud de la France. Autre [q-bio.OT]. Université Joseph-Fourier - Grenoble I, 2006. Français. ⟨tel-00129514⟩

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