Abstract : An ad hoc network is a spontaneous wireless network of mobile terminals. If it is connected to the Internet, it constitutes an hybrid network. In this PhD thesis, we focus on the creation of a self-organization layer, according to us required to set up an efficient network. The contributions presented here explain how to structure an ad-hoc network and demonstrate the utility of this organization.
We proposed a virtual structure of self-organization creating several hierarchy levels and improving the information flooding. Algorithms are closely integrated to optimize the maintenance. This structure was validated through simulations, analytically and in a real radio environment. The structure exhibits properties of robustness, persistence, self-stabilization and scalability. This self-organization does not constituting a goal, we proposed also routing and localization protocols benefiting from the virtual structure, inspired largely from classical protocols and improving their performances and scalability.