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Le développement des compétences pour la gestion des risques professionnels : le domaine de la maintenance des systèmes électriques

Abstract : In this research, we aimed to identify and to define operational competencies for the management of occupational risks, the way subjects elaborate them and to determine what didactic situations would encourage their development. This research was performed in the field of the maintenance of electric systems.
We analysed six accidents. Their origin was electric and they concern operators in charge of the maintenance of electric systems. We identified a core task for risk management: the operation of cutting off the power. Operators were confronted to “abnormal” situations in terms of trade rules and they were not able to detect that the operation of cutting off has failed.
Required competencies to realise the core task “cutting off the power” were then identified. We elaborated a simulated situation that transposes several characteristics of abnormal situations analysed in the first phase.
Twenty-three operators have participated to this simulation. Several dimensions of competencies were identified:
— Operational risk models are composed of classes of situations, models of normal and abnormal situations and the pragmatic concepts of “continuity” and of “direction of energy distribution in a network”.
— The operators elaborated multi-instrumented schemes of action in order to cut off the power. Those schemes are associated to operational risk models.
— They also elaborated system of instruments formed on the basis of material artefacts, as measuring tools, and on the basis of symbolic artefacts, as safety rules. These systems are associated to operational risk models.
Those dimensions are integrated in the course of development, that is not homogeneous for all the dimensions analysed. The development of competencies is related with the increase of degree and field of experience (electromechanical or maintenance of the electric network fields) even if experience is not sufficient to elaborate critical competencies, which characterise expertise.
The results are used to propose didactic situations design, which would encourage the development of competencies for occupational risk management.
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  • HAL Id : tel-00096953, version 1

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Christine Vidal-Gomel. Le développement des compétences pour la gestion des risques professionnels : le domaine de la maintenance des systèmes électriques. domain_stic.soci. Université Paris VIII Vincennes-Saint Denis, 2001. Français. ⟨tel-00096953⟩

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