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Theses

Modélisation physique des voies aériennes supérieures pour le Syndrome d'Apnées Obstructives du Sommeil

Franz Chouly 1, 2
2 GMCAO
TIMC-IMAG - Techniques de l'Ingénierie Médicale et de la Complexité - Informatique, Mathématiques et Applications, Grenoble - UMR 5525
Abstract : Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome is caused by frequent episodes
of upper airway obstruction during sleep.
Physical modelling allows a better insight into this phenomenon which is
needed to improve the efficiency of treatments.
So, the aim was to build and to validate an algorithm for
numerical simulations of the interaction between
the soft tissue and the airflow at the origin of an apneic episode.
So as to reduce the computational cost, simplificatory assumptions
have been stated. First, for the soft tissue, the finite element method
allows a realistic prediction of their behaviour. Small perturbations
framework combined with linear elasticity theory enable fast computations
of their mechanical response. Then, the numerical simulation of the
airflow is based on an asymptotic formulation of the Navier-Stokes
equations (Reduced Navier-Stokes / Prandtl), which makes easier
the numerical solving.
For the validation of both the assumptions and the numerical solving method,
an in-vitro setup has been used. It allows the reproduction, in a controlled
environment, of an interaction between the airflow and a deformable
structure, similar to the one that occurs near the tongue during the beginning
of an obstruction. An accurate measure of the deformation of the airflow duct
has been obtained thanks to a digital camera. A set of quantitative comparisons has
revealed that the error between predictions and measurements is small, in
spite of the simplifications formulated.
Finally, to get closer to clinical reality, upper airway models of four
apneic patients have been built from sagittal radiographies. Comparisons
between simulations from pre-operative and post-operative radiographies
have showed that the predictions were in agreement with the effects
of the surgical gesture. Moreover, they put forward some limitations of
the method, due to the complexity of the phenomenon.
Document type :
Theses
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https://tel.archives-ouvertes.fr/tel-00012061
Contributor : Franz Chouly <>
Submitted on : Thursday, March 30, 2006 - 12:59:09 PM
Last modification on : Tuesday, July 27, 2021 - 3:54:02 PM
Long-term archiving on: : Saturday, April 3, 2010 - 10:09:06 PM

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  • HAL Id : tel-00012061, version 1

Citation

Franz Chouly. Modélisation physique des voies aériennes supérieures pour le Syndrome d'Apnées Obstructives du Sommeil. Modélisation et simulation. Institut National Polytechnique de Grenoble - INPG, 2005. Français. ⟨tel-00012061⟩

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