Abstract : In classical radiotherapy, the characteristics of photons interactions undergo limits for the treatment of radioresistant and not well located tumours.
Pioneering treatments of patients at the Lawrence Laboratory at Berkeley has demonstrated two advantages of hadrons beams: the Relative Biologic Effect (the RBE) and the ballistic of the beams. Since 1994, the clinical centre at Chiba, has demonstrated successfully the applicability of the method. A physics group, managed by G. Kraft, at Darmstadt in Germany, has underlined the advantages of carbon beams. An European pool, called ENGIGHT (European Network for LIGHt ion Therapy) has been created in which the French ETOILE poject appeared.
The purpose of the thesis concerns measurements and models of "in vitro" human cells survival. In the first part, the nowadays situation in particles interactions, tracks and cells structures and radiobiology is presented here. The second is devoted to the models based on the beam tracks and localization of the physical dose. Discussion of sensitivity to various parameters of the model has been realized with the help of numerical simulations.
Finally the predictions of the improved model has been compared to experimental irradiations of human cells with argon and carbon beams of the Ganil machine.
Conclusion of such study shows the performance and limits of a local model for predicting the radiobiologic efficiency of light ions in hadrontherapy.