Chaîne de Fréquence optique pour mesurer les transitions 2S-8S/8D dans l'atome d'hydrogène , Mesure de la constante de Rydberg en unité de fréquence

Abstract : The aim of this thesis is to make a pure measurement of the frequency of the 2S- 8S/8D two-photon transition in atomic hydrogen. In that purpose we have built a frequency chain in which hydrogen frequencies are compared with the difference of two optical standards, the methane stabilized He-Ne laser (3.39 μm) and the iodine stabilized He-Ne laser (633 nm). The radiation from a home made Ti-sapphire laser (TS2) at 778 nm is mixed, in a LiIO_3 crystal, with the one of a auxiliary He-Ne laser at 3.39 μm to produce a synthesized radiation at 633 nm. This generated beam is heterodyned with that of a standard laser at 633 nm. The frequency of the Ti-sapphire (TS1) laser used for the two photon excitation is 89 GHz far from the one of TS2. To compare these two lasers, we have used a Schottky diode. The two lasers and a microwave radiation at 89 GHz, produced by a Gunn diode, are focused on the Schottky diode. The Gunn diode is phase locked on an ultrastable quartz oscillator. In this way, we have linked an optical frequency of atomic hydrogen to the cesium clock without interferometry. From our measurements, we have deduced a new value of the Rydberg constant : R_\infty = 109 737.315 683 4 (24) cm^-1 with an uncertainty of 2.2x10^-11 Our uncertainty is near the one of the Q.E.D calculations giving the theoretical values of the energy levels. This value, which is currently the most precise available, is in good agreement with the recent result obtained from the 1S-2S and 2S-4D transitions in Münich.
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Physique Atomique [physics.atom-ph]. Université Pierre et Marie Curie - Paris VI, 1993. Français
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François Nez. Chaîne de Fréquence optique pour mesurer les transitions 2S-8S/8D dans l'atome d'hydrogène , Mesure de la constante de Rydberg en unité de fréquence. Physique Atomique [physics.atom-ph]. Université Pierre et Marie Curie - Paris VI, 1993. Français. 〈tel-00011890〉

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