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Atomes refroidis par laser : de la mélasse au cristal optique

Abstract : The aim of this thesis is to study two applications of laser-cooled atoms. In the first one we have produced and studied a sample of cooled atoms under microgravity conditions. Because of the very low temperature (18 μK), the atoms released in free flight in microgravity exhibit a very long residence time in a small (1 cm^3) volume. The second and more fundamental application uses the methods of nonlinear optics to study the cooling mechanisms themselves. Stimulated Raman and Rayleigh spectroscopy provide a method of directly measuring the force acting on an atom in one-dimensional "corkscrew"molasses. They also enable us to demonstrate the localization of the cold atoms in the potential wells created by the light field in one-, two- and three-dimensional "Sisyphus" molasses. As these potential wells are arranged in a well-ordered array, the molasses picture of a viscous medium created by the laser photons gives way to a picture of a light-induced optical crystal
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  • HAL Id : tel-00011889, version 1


Brahim Lounis. Atomes refroidis par laser : de la mélasse au cristal optique. Physique Atomique [physics.atom-ph]. Université Paris Sud - Paris XI, 1993. Français. ⟨tel-00011889⟩



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