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Préparation et manipulation de paquets d'ondes atomiques ultrafroids

Abstract : In laser cooling the single photon recoil appears as a natural length scale. We report here on the first observation of subrecoil laser cooling in three dimensions, where we use the method of velocity-selective coherent population trapping. We cooled a cloud of metastable helium atoms to 180 nK by all optical means. The experimantal results are compared to the predictions of a theoretical model using Lévy statistics. The cold atoms are prepared in a coherent superposition of several de Broglie wavepackets. By using laser induced adiabatic tranfer we coherently manipulate these atomic wavepackets. We demonstrated adiabatic transfer into a single wavepacket or into two coherent wavepackets, while retaining the subrecoil momentum dispersion of the initial wavepackets. We thus showed that the quantized tranfer of momentum also works in two and three dimensions. The efficiency of the transfer is of the order of 90% in two dimensions and of the order of 75% in three dimensions. To a large extent, the direction of the momentum and the internal state of the atoms described by each of the final wavepackets can be chosen at will. Finally, we experimentally demonstrated velocity-selective dark states on a J = 1 → J = 0 transition and developed a simple theoretical method that allows to predict the structure of these states in momentum space
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Submitted on : Tuesday, March 7, 2006 - 1:23:36 PM
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  • HAL Id : tel-00011789, version 1

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Simone Kulin. Préparation et manipulation de paquets d'ondes atomiques ultrafroids. Physique Atomique [physics.atom-ph]. Université Pierre et Marie Curie - Paris VI, 1997. Français. ⟨tel-00011789⟩

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