. Figure~3-16, Diagramme par blocs d'une boucle de rétroaction B Analyse de la rétroaction La fig.3-16 représente le diagramme par blocs fonctionnels d'un système de contrôle à rétroaction négative. Le signal d'entrée R est le signal de référence; le signal de sortie C, la variable à contrôler

S. T. Au-contraire, sont séparés de plus que 0394t, le terme en 03B4(t -t') est nul Nous pouvons donc réécrire la formule (A.11) de la manière suivante: On retrouve dans ce résultat l'observation faite plus haut, à savoir que la statistique régulière ne laisse pas de place au hasard, et qu'en conséquence la fonction d'autocorrélation ainsi obtenue est moins le résultat d'une moyenne sur les probabilités d'évènements incertains

. Pour-un-flux-poissonien, le calcul est plus direct. L'intensité moyenne est donnée par: La fonction d'autocorrélation est donnée par: On retrouve là une caractéristique bien connue du bruit poissonien: il n'y a aucune corrélation entre deux instants distincts

. La-fonction-d, autocorrélation d'un processus ponctuel dont le bruit, dans la limite de la bande de détection, est s fois au dessus du bruit de Poisson, c'est à dire dont la densité spectrale de bruit mesurée ne dépend pas de 03A9 (bruit blanc) et vaut s fois celle d'un flux poissonien de même flux moyen <~(t)&#x3E, p.284

B. Abraham and N. Mandel, Dynamic Instabilities and Pulsations in Lasers, Progress in Optics. E. Wolf, 1988.

M. Clelland, Progress in the search for the optimum light source : squeezing experiments with a frequency doubler, Quantum Semiclass. Opt, vol.7, p.715, 1995.

C. Benkert, M. O. Scully, J. Bergou, L. Davidovitch, M. Hillery et al., Quantum fluctuations in light beams, Phys. Rev. A, p.41, 1990.

J. E. Bernard and A. J. Alcock, High-efficiency diode-pumped Nd:YVO_4 slab laser, Optics Letters, vol.18, issue.12, p.968, 1993.
DOI : 10.1364/OL.18.000968

D. G. Blair, The detection of gravitationnal waves, 1991.

A. M. Campbell, S. Rowan, and J. Hough, Apparent relaxation oscillations in the frequency noise of a diode-pumped miniature Nd:YAG ring laser, Physics Letters A, vol.170, issue.5, p.363, 1992.
DOI : 10.1016/0375-9601(92)90888-S

M. J. Collett and C. W. Gardiner, Squeezing of intracavity and traveling-wave light fields produced in parametric amplification, Physical Review A, vol.30, issue.3, pp.1386-287, 1984.
DOI : 10.1103/PhysRevA.30.1386

M. J. Collett and C. W. Gardiner, Input and output in damped quantum systems: quantum stochastics differential equations and the master equation, Phys. Rev. A, issue.6, pp.31-3761, 1985.

M. J. Collett and D. F. Walls, Squeezing spectra for nonlinear optical systems, Physical Review A, vol.32, issue.5, p.2887, 1985.
DOI : 10.1103/PhysRevA.32.2887

M. De-labachelerie, C. Latrasse, P. Kemssu, and P. Cerez, The frequency control of laser diodes, Journal de Physique III, vol.2, issue.9, p.1557, 1992.
DOI : 10.1051/jp3:1992200

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/jpa-00248827

W. P. Dumke, Interband transitions and maser action, Phys. Rev, issue.127, p.1559, 1962.

. Eda, . Shimomura, . Shimada, and M. Yamada, Microchips lasers fabricated by a novel photolithography technique, 1992.

R. Fabre, Fundamental systems in quantum optics. course 11 -Progress in Optics, 1988.

C. Fabre, Quantum fluctuations in light beams, Cours des Houches, LXIII, 1996.

. Faure, Nouveaux matériaux lasers dopés Néodyme

M. Fontenelle and L. Davidovitch, Sub-Poissonian light from a laser with an injected signal, Physical Review A, vol.51, issue.3, p.2560, 1995.
DOI : 10.1103/PhysRevA.51.2560

M. J. Freeman, D. G. Steel, D. C. Kilper, R. Craig, and D. R. Scifres, Room-temperature amplitude-squeezed light from an injection-locked quantum-well laser with a time-varying drive current, Optics Letters, vol.20, issue.2, p.183, 1995.
DOI : 10.1364/OL.20.000183

C. Gardiner, Quantum noise, p.288, 1991.

E. Giacobino, F. Marin, A. Bramati, and V. Jost, QUANTUM NOISE REDUCTION IN LASERS, Journal of Nonlinear Optical Physics & Materials, vol.05, issue.04, p.863, 1996.
DOI : 10.1142/S0218863596000611

L. Gillner, G. Björk, and Y. Yamamoto, Quantum noise properties of an injection-locked laser oscillator with pump-noise suppression and squeezed injection, Physical Review A, vol.41, issue.9
DOI : 10.1103/PhysRevA.41.5053

R. N. Hall, G. E. Fenner, J. D. Kingsley, T. J. Soltys, and R. O. Carlson, Coherent Light Emission From GaAs Junctions, Physical Review Letters, vol.9, issue.9, p.366, 1962.
DOI : 10.1103/PhysRevLett.9.366

C. C. Harb, M. B. Gray, H. Bachor, R. Schilling, P. Rottengatter et al., Suppression of th intensity noise in a diode pumped Neodymium: Yag nonplanar ring laser, IEEE Journal of Quantum Electronics, issue.12, pp.30-2907, 1994.

K. C. Harvey and C. J. Myatt, External-cavity diode laser using a grazing-incidence diffraction grating, Optics Letters, vol.16, issue.12, p.910, 1991.
DOI : 10.1364/OL.16.000910

H. A. Haus and Y. Yamamoto, Quantum noise of an injection-locked laser oscillator, Physical Review A, vol.29, issue.3, p.1261, 1984.
DOI : 10.1103/PhysRevA.29.1261

F. E. Hovis, M. Stuff, C. J. Kennedy, and B. Vivian, Lower level relaxation of Nd:YAG, IEEE Journal of Quantum Electronics, vol.28, issue.1, p.39, 1992.
DOI : 10.1109/3.119492

S. Inoue, S. Machida, Y. Yamamoto, and H. Ohzu, Quantum correlation between longitudinal-mode intensities in a multimode squeezed semiconductor laser, Physical Review A, vol.46, issue.5, 1992.
DOI : 10.1103/PhysRevA.46.2757

S. Inoue, S. Machida, Y. Yamamoto, and H. Ohzu, Squeezing in an injection-locked semiconductor laser, Physical Review A, vol.48, issue.3, pp.2230-289, 1993.
DOI : 10.1103/PhysRevA.48.2230

. Kaminskii, Laser crystals, 1981.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/jpa-00252736

P. Khandokhin, Y. Khanin, J. Celet, D. Dangoisse, and P. Glorieux, Low frequency relaxation oscillations in class B lasers with feedback, Optics Communications, vol.123, issue.1-3
DOI : 10.1016/0030-4018(95)00360-6

D. C. Kilper, D. G. Steel, R. Craig, and D. R. Scifres, Polarization-dependent noise in photon-number squeezed light generated by quantum-well lasers, Optics Letters, vol.21, issue.16, p.1283, 1996.
DOI : 10.1364/OL.21.001283

G. J. Kintz and T. Baer, Single-frequency operation in solid-state laser materials with short absorption depths, IEEE Journal of Quantum Electronics, vol.26, issue.9, p.1457, 1990.
DOI : 10.1109/3.102621

. Koechner, Solid state laser engineering, 1988.
DOI : 10.1007/978-3-662-14513-5

URL : http://link.springer.com/content/pdf/bfm%3A978-0-387-29338-7%2F1.pdf

M. Kolobov, L. Davidovitch, E. Giacobino, and C. Fabre, Role of pumping statistics and dynamics of atomic polarization in quantum fluctuations of laser sources, Physical Review A, vol.47, issue.2
DOI : 10.1103/PhysRevA.47.1431

E. Lacot and F. Stoeckel, Nonlinear mode coupling in a microchip laser, Journal of the Optical Society of America B, vol.13, issue.9, p.2034, 1996.
DOI : 10.1364/JOSAB.13.002034

K. B. Macadam, A. Steinbach, and C. Wieman, A narrow-band tunable diode laser with grating feedback and a saturated absorption spectrometer for cs and rb

S. Machida and Y. Yamamoto, Observation of sub-poissonian photoelectron statistics in a negative feedback semiconductor laser, Optics Communications, vol.57, issue.4, p.290, 1986.
DOI : 10.1016/0030-4018(86)90100-8

S. Machida and Y. Yamamoto, Ultrabroadband amplitude squeezing in a semiconductor laser, Physical Review Letters, vol.60, issue.9, p.792, 1988.
DOI : 10.1103/PhysRevLett.60.792

S. Machida, Y. Yamamoto, and Y. Itaya, driven semiconductor laser, Physical Review Letters, vol.58, issue.10, p.1000, 1987.
DOI : 10.1103/PhysRevLett.58.1000

J. J. Maki, N. S. Campbell, C. M. Grande, R. P. Knorpp, and D. H. Mac-intyre, Stabilized diode-laser system with grating feedback anf frequency-offset locking, Optics Communications, vol.102, issue.3-4, p.251, 1993.
DOI : 10.1016/0030-4018(93)90391-H

F. Marin, A. Bramati, E. Giacobino, T. C. Zhang, J. Poizat et al., Squeezing and Intermode Correlations in Laser Diodes, Physical Review Letters, vol.75, issue.25, pp.75-4606, 1995.
DOI : 10.1103/PhysRevLett.75.4606

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00558942

J. Mertz and A. Heidmann, Photon noise reduction by controlled deletion techniques, Journal of the Optical Society of America B, vol.10, issue.4
DOI : 10.1364/JOSAB.10.000745

J. Mertz, A. Heidmann, and C. Fabre, Generation of sub-Poissonian light using active control with twin beams, Physical Review A, vol.44, issue.5, p.3229, 1991.
DOI : 10.1103/PhysRevA.44.3229

M. I. Nathan, W. P. Dumke, G. Burns, F. H. Dills, and G. Lasher, JUNCTIONS, Applied Physics Letters, vol.1, issue.3, p.62, 1962.
DOI : 10.1063/1.1777371

J. R. Connor, :Nd, Applied Physics Letters, vol.9, issue.11, p.407, 1966.
DOI : 10.1063/1.1754631

T. M. Quist, R. J. Keyes, W. E. Krag, B. Lax, A. L. Mac-whorter et al., Semiconductor maser of gaas, Appl. Phys. Lett, 1962.

T. C. Ralph, C. C. Harb, and H. Bachor, Intensity noise of injection-locked lasers: Quantum theory using a linearized input-output method, Physical Review A, vol.54, issue.5, pp.4359-291, 1996.
DOI : 10.1103/PhysRevA.54.4359

T. C. Ralph, C. C. Harb, and H. Bachor, Intensity noise properties of injection locked lasers, Phys. Rev. A, vol.54, issue.5, p.4370, 1996.

W. H. Richardson, S. Machida, and Y. Yamamoto, Squeezed photon number noise and subpoissonian electrical partition noise in a semiconductor laser

W. H. Richardson and R. M. Shelby, Nonclassical light from a semiconductor laser operating at 4 K, Physical Review Letters, vol.64, issue.4, p.400, 1990.
DOI : 10.1103/PhysRevLett.64.400

W. H. Richardson and Y. Yamamoto, Quantum correlation between the junctionvoltage fluctuation in a semiconductor laser, Phys. Rev. Lett, vol.66, 1963.

R. M. Slusher, L. W. Hollberg, B. Yurke, J. C. Mertz, and J. F. Valley, Observation of squeezed states generated by four-wave mixing in an optical cavity, Phys. Rev. Lett, issue.22, pp.55-2409, 1985.

P. R. Tapster, J. G. Rarity, and J. S. Satchell, Generation of subpoissonian light by high efficiency light emitting diodes, Europhys. Lett, vol.4, 1987.

. Tarazona, Etude et réalisation d'éléments de microoptique pour la stabilisation de microcavités laser, Thèse, 1996.

M. S. Taubman, H. Wiseman, D. E. Mac-clelland, and H. Bachor, Intensity feedback effects on quantum-limited noise, Journal of the Optical Society of America B, vol.12, issue.10, pp.12-1792, 1995.
DOI : 10.1364/JOSAB.12.001792

M. C. Teich and B. E. Saleh, Observation of sub-Poisson Franck???Hertz light at 2537 nm, Journal of the Optical Society of America B, vol.2, issue.2, p.275, 1985.
DOI : 10.1364/JOSAB.2.000275

M. C. Teich, B. E. Saleh, and D. Stoler, Antibunching in the Franck-Hertz experiment, Optics Communications, vol.46, issue.3-4, pp.244-292, 1983.
DOI : 10.1016/0030-4018(83)90287-0

K. Tsubono and S. Moriwaki, Shot-Noise Limited Low-Frequency Intensity Noise of a Nd:YAG Laser, Japanese Journal of Applied Physics, vol.31, issue.Part 1, No. 4, p.1241, 1992.
DOI : 10.1143/JJAP.31.1241

H. Wang, M. J. Freeman, and D. G. Steel, Squeezed light from injection-locked quantum well lasers, Physical Review Letters, vol.71, issue.24, pp.71-3951, 1993.
DOI : 10.1103/PhysRevLett.71.3951

H. Wang, M. J. Freeman, D. G. Steel, R. Craig, and D. R. Scifres, Amplitude squeezed light from quantum-well lasers, Opt. Lett, vol.18, issue.5, p.379, 1993.

H. Wang, M. J. Freeman, D. G. Steel, R. Craig, and D. R. Scifres, Wavelength tunable amplitude squeezed light from a room-temperature quantum-well laser, Opt. Lett, issue.24, pp.18-2141, 1993.

J. Wang and P. Mandel, Antiphase dynamics in pump-modulated multimode intracavity second-harmonic generation, Quantum and Semiclassical Optics: Journal of the European Optical Society Part B, vol.8, issue.1, p.15, 1996.
DOI : 10.1088/1355-5111/8/1/003

K. Washio, K. Iwamoto, K. Inoue, I. Hino, S. Matsumoto et al., Roomtemperature cw operation of an efficient miniaturized Nd: Yag laser end-pumped by a superluminescent diode, Appl. Phys. Lett, issue.11, pp.29-720, 1976.

Y. Yamamoto and S. Machida, High-impedance suppression of pump fluctuation and amplitude squeezing in semiconductor lasers, Physical Review A, vol.35, issue.12, pp.35-5114, 1987.
DOI : 10.1103/PhysRevA.35.5114

Y. Yamamoto, S. Machida, N. Imoto, M. Kitagawa, and G. Björk, Generation of number-phase minimum-uncertainty states and number states, Journal of the Optical Society of America B, vol.4, issue.10, pp.1645-293, 1987.
DOI : 10.1364/JOSAB.4.001645

Y. Yamamoto, S. Machida, and O. Nilsson, Amplitude squeezing in a pump-noise-suppressed laser oscillator, Physical Review A, vol.34, issue.5, p.4025, 1986.
DOI : 10.1103/PhysRevA.34.4025

T. C. Zhang, J. Poizat, P. Grelu, P. Grangier, F. Marin et al., Quantum noise of free-running and externally-stabilized laser diodes, Quantum and Semiclassical Optics: Journal of the European Optical Society Part B, vol.7, issue.4, p.601, 1995.
DOI : 10.1088/1355-5111/7/4/015