C. H. An, &. John, and M. Hollerbach, Kinematic stability issues in force control of manipulators, IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation, vol.4, pp.897-903, 1987.

D. O. Brian, &. Anderson, and . Vongpanitlerd, Network analysis and synthesis -a modern systems theory approach-. Englewood Cliffs, N.J, 1973.

P. Arcara, Control of haptic and robotic telemanipulation systems

]. P. Berkelman-03a, E. Berkelman, P. Boidard, &. J. Cinquin, and . Troccaz, LER: the light endoscope robot, Proceedings 2003 IEEE/RSJ International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems (IROS 2003) (Cat. No.03CH37453), 2003.
DOI : 10.1109/IROS.2003.1249300

. Berkelman, J. Peter, L. L. Berkelman, R. H. Whitcomb, P. Taylor et al., A miniature microsurgical instrument tip force sensor for enhanced force feedback during robot-assisted manipulation, IEEE Transactions on Robotics and Automation, vol.19, issue.5, pp.917-922, 2003.
DOI : 10.1109/TRA.2003.817526

E. Bonneau, F. Taha, P. Gravez, and &. Lamy, SUR- GICOBOT : Surgical Gesture Assistance COBOT for Maxillo-Facial Interventions, Proceedings of the Scientific Workshop on Medical Robotics, Navigation and Visualization, pp.353-360, 2004.

W. Cavusoglu, F. Williams, &. S. Tendick, and . Sastry, Robotics for Telesurgery : Second Generation Berkeley/UCSF Laparoscopic Telesurgical Workstation and Looking towards the Future Applications, Proceedings of the 39th Allerton Conference on Communication, Control and Computing, 2001.

]. L. Joly, Commande Hybride Position/Force pour la téléopération : une Approche Basée sur des Analogies Mécaniques, Thèse de doctorat, 1997.

S. Jurong, P. Mederic, V. Pasqui, G. Morel, and &. Wang-shuxin, Preliminary Results on the Design of a Novel Laparoscopic Manipulator, Proceedings of the 11th World Congress in Mechanism and Machine Science, 2003.

T. Kennedy, &. J. Hu, and . Desai, Combining haptic and visual servoing for cardiothoracic surgery, Proceedings 2002 IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation (Cat. No.02CH37292), pp.2106-2111, 2002.
DOI : 10.1109/ROBOT.2002.1014851

K. Hassan and . Khalil, Nonlinear systems. Pearson Education, Prentice- Hall, 3 e édition, 2002.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00811192

A. Kheddar, Téléopération et téléopérobotique, chapitre Rendus haptique, pp.95-141, 2002.

]. W. Kim, Developments of new force reflecting control schemes and an application to a teleoperation training simulator, Proceedings 1992 IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation, pp.1412-1419, 1992.
DOI : 10.1109/ROBOT.1992.220152

Y. Kobayashi, S. Chiyoda, K. Watabe, M. Okada, and &. Nakamura, Small Occupancy Robotic Mechanisms for Endoscopic Surgery, Proceedings of the 5th International Conference on Medical Image Computing and Computer Assisted Intervention, 2002.
DOI : 10.1007/3-540-45786-0_10

A. Krupa, G. Morel, and &. M. De-mathelin, Achieving High Precision Laparoscopic Manipulation Using Force Feedback Control, IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation, pp.1864-1869, 2002.

K. J. Kuchenbecker and &. Günter-niemeyer, Canceling Induced Master Motion in Force-Reflecting Teleoperation, Dynamic Systems and Control, Parts A and B, p.60049
DOI : 10.1115/IMECE2004-60049

]. D. Lawrence-92 and . Lawrence, Stability and transparency in bilateral teleoperation, IEEE Transactions on Robotics and Automation, vol.9, pp.625-637, 1992.

H. Bibliographie, &. J. Lipkin, and . Duffy, Hybrid twist and wrench control for robotic manipulator, Transactions of ASME Journal of Mechanisms, Transmissions , and Automation in Design, vol.110, issue.2, pp.138-144, 1988.

]. M. Lum, J. Rosen, M. Sinanan, and &. B. Hannaford, Kinematic optimization of a spherical mechanism for a minimally invasive surgical robot, IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation, 2004. Proceedings. ICRA '04. 2004, pp.829-834, 2004.
DOI : 10.1109/ROBOT.2004.1307252

B. Maurin, C. Doignon, J. Gangloff, B. Bayle, M. De-mathelin et al., CT-Bot : A stereotactic-Guided Robotic Assistant for Percutaneous Procedures of the Abdomen, Proceedings of the SPIE Medical Imaging, 2005.

M. Michelin, P. Poignet, and &. E. Dombre, GEOMETRICAL CONTROL APPROACHES FOR MINIMALLY INVASIVE SURGERY, Perspective in Image-Guided Surgery, 2004.
DOI : 10.1142/9789812702678_0022

G. Morel and &. Gangloff, Commande référencée capteurs en robotique médicale et chirurgicale, 5 e Journées Nationales de la Recherche en Robotique, pp.131-142, 2005.

R. M. Murray, Z. Li, &. S. Shankar, and . Sastry, A mathematical introduction to robotic manipulation, 1994.

G. Niemeyer and &. J. Slotine, Stable adaptive teleoperation, IEEE Journal of Oceanic Engineering, vol.16, issue.1, pp.152-162, 1991.
DOI : 10.1109/48.64895

S. Shahin, R. Nudehi, &. Mukherjee, and . Ghodoussi, A Shared- Control Approach to Haptic Interface Design for Minimally Invasive Telesurgical Training, IEEE Transactions on Control Systems Technology, vol.13, issue.4, 2005.

&. G. Hirzinger, Cartesian Control Issues for Minimally Invasive Robot Surgery, IEEERSJ International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems, 2000.

V. Perdereau, Contribution à la commande hybride forceposition application à la coopération de deux robots, Thèse de doctorat, 1991.

C. A. Peters, Robotic Assisted Surgery in Pediatric Urology, Pediatric Endosurgery and Innovative Techniques, pp.403-413, 2003.
DOI : 10.1089/109264103322614277

G. Picod, A. C. Jambon, P. Dubois, and &. D. Vinatier, Measurement of the friction in the sheath of the trocars used in laparoscopy, ITBM-RBM Editions scientifiques et médicales Elsevier, pp.217-222, 2003.

G. Picod, A. C. Jambon, P. Dubois, and &. D. Vinatier, Effect of Laparoscopic trocar model on the quality of the movement : experimental study of friction, Gynécologie Obstétrique & Fertilité -Editions scientifiques et médicales Elsevier, pp.937-941, 2004.

F. Pierrot, E. Dombre, E. Dégoulange, L. Urbain, P. Caron et al., Hippocrate: a safe robot arm for medical applications with force feedback, Medical Image Analysis, vol.3, issue.3, pp.285-300, 1999.
DOI : 10.1016/S1361-8415(99)80025-5

M. H. Raibert and &. J. Craig, Hybrid position/force control of manipulators . Transactions of ASME, Journal of Dynamic Systems, Measurements , and Control, vol.102, pp.126-133, 1981.

U. Seibold and &. G. Hirzinger, A 6-Axis Force/Torque Sensor Design for Haptic Feedback in Minimally Invasive Robotic Surgery, Proceedings of the 2nd VDE World Microtechnologies Congress, 2003.

Y. Shen and &. Hüper, A Joint Space Formulation for Compliant Motion Control of Robot Manipulators, IEEE International Conference on Mechatronics and Automation, 2005.

B. Siciliano and &. Villani, Robot force control, International Series in Engineering and Computer Science, vol.540, 1999.
DOI : 10.1007/978-1-4615-4431-9

M. Tavakoli, R. V. Patel, and &. M. Moallem, A force reflective master-slave system for minimally invasive surgery, Proceedings 2003 IEEE/RSJ International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems (IROS 2003) (Cat. No.03CH37453), 2003.
DOI : 10.1109/IROS.2003.1249629

R. H. Taylor, S. Lavallée, and C. Grigore, Burdea & Ralph Mösges, éditeurs. Computer-integrated surgery : Technology and clinical applications, chapitre Robotically Assisted Laparoscopic Surgery : From Concept to Development, pp.577-580, 1995.

R. Taylor, P. Jensen, L. Whitcomb, A. Barnes, R. Kumar et al., A Steady-Hand Robotic System for Microsurgical Augmentation, The International Journal of Robotics Research, vol.18, issue.12, pp.1201-1210, 1999.
DOI : 10.1177/02783649922067807

URL : http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/summary?doi=10.1.1.17.7830

C. Wagner, N. Stylopoulos, and &. R. Howe, The role of force feedback in surgery: analysis of blunt dissection, Proceedings 10th Symposium on Haptic Interfaces for Virtual Environment and Teleoperator Systems. HAPTICS 2002, 2002.
DOI : 10.1109/HAPTIC.2002.998943

E. Daniel and . Whitney, Historical perspective and state of the art in robot force control, International Journal of Robotics Research, vol.6, pp.3-14, 1987.

]. Khatib, Improved Force Control for Conventional Arms Using Wrist-Based Torque Feedback, IEEE International Symposium on Experimental Robotics, pp.516-525, 1995.

B. Yi, I. D. Walker, D. Tesar, &. Robert, and A. Freeman, Geometric stability in force control, Proceedings. 1991 IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation, pp.281-286, 1991.
DOI : 10.1109/ROBOT.1991.131588

N. Zemiti, T. Ortmaier, M. Vitrani, and &. G. Morel, A Force Controlled Laparoscopic Surgical Robot without Distal Force Sensing, Proceedings of the IEEE 9th International Symposium on Experimental Robotics, 2004.
DOI : 10.1007/11552246_15

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-01171256/document

N. Zemiti, T. Ortmaier, and &. G. Morel, A new robot for force control in minimally invasive surgery, 2004 IEEE/RSJ International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems (IROS) (IEEE Cat. No.04CH37566), pp.3643-3648, 2004.
DOI : 10.1109/IROS.2004.1389981

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00387379

E. Dombre, M. Michelin, F. Pierrot, . Ph, . Poignet et al., MARGE Project: Design, Modeling and Control of Assistive Devices for Minimally Invasive Surgery, Proceedings of the 7th International Conference on Medical Image Computing and Computer-Assisted Intervention, pp.1-8, 2004.
DOI : 10.1007/978-3-540-30136-3_1

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/lirmm-00108906

N. Zemiti, T. Ortmaier, and &. G. Morel, MC 2 E : un Robot de Chirurgie Mini-Invasive Commandé en Effort, Proceedings of the 18 e Journées des Jeunes Chercheurs en Robotique, 2004.

I. Que, SJ) et Im(S) sont de même dimension n alors : Im(SJ) = Im(S) et par extension

. Au, équation (B.19) avec l'équation (B.21) on obtient