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Theses

L'intelligence artificielle et la question du continu; Remarques sur le modèle de Turing

Abstract : The thesis has two goals : to describe the notion of a Turing machine as a concept on one hand and as a model on the other. The starting epistemological hypothesis is as follows : to make the notion of a Turing machine psychologically significant, one has to connect it to the notion of the continuum in the two directions already mentioned, concept and model.
The notion of a Turing machine is described as a concept in the theory of computability. The epistemological context in which the concept appeared in the thirties is brought to light : philosophically, it is linked to the foundational debate in mathematics; mathematically, to the birth of several formalisms allowing to take into account the computability of functions, one of them being the formalism of a Turing machine.
How the concept of a Turing machine is transformed into a model for the theory of psychology is described in part two. The justification of this transformation is justified by means of the thought experiment elaborated by Turing through the ‘imitation game'. This game is interpreted from a formalist, probabilist and psychological point of view. One has to admit that there is no ‘Turing test' in the game, contrary to what is generally believed.
In part three, one looks at the way the notion of a Turing machine has been used as a foundation for Artificial Intelligence. The model of Turing, as it has been used up to now, generates two types of dualist theories : a platonist and a functionalist one. By stressing the role played by language in the constitution of the model, a non-dualist interpretation is justified. The model is then cast in a broader historical tradition, going from C. Babbage to R. Thom.
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Jean Lassègue. L'intelligence artificielle et la question du continu; Remarques sur le modèle de Turing. Philosophie. Université de Nanterre - Paris X, 1994. Français. ⟨tel-00011541⟩

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