Réseaux d'entreprises et stratégies industrielles dans les forêts tropicales

Abstract : One classical industrial organisation has dominated the production and the trade of rainforest tropical timbers up to the 1990s. Heavy investments, a lack of flexibility, actual harvesting policies with clear preferences for high value hardwoods, and a low level of specialisation in the actual marketing strategies among the operators, form the footprint of this organisation.
A new industrial organisation of flexible production develops since the mid-1990s. Based on very reactive and mobile inter-firms networks, it presents a high level of specialisation in the actual marketing strategies among the networks. This organisation is essentially displayed by communities of oversea Chineses, Indians, Lebaneses, and Italians. These 4 types of networks are very similar in their structure. Involved firms are simultaneously in cooperation and in competition, which leads to the concept of “coo-petition”. Information exchanges and the minimisation of transaction costs constitute the basement of their competitiveness. At the crossroads of economy, geography, regional sciences and business sciences, network production is theorised and generalised into one model. The model explains simultaneously the different types of networks. Trust and reputation are institutionalised. Middlemen and brokers have a key role. The concept of “transaction dimension” is proposed. Within this dimension; firms optimise their location through the hierarchy of relations between the actors, and their communautarism. The model also explains the dynamics of the networks, the resilience of their properties, and the multiscale nature of their structure.
Some multi agents systems based on Visual-Basic and on Cormas make possible to experimentally validate the model, by simulating inter-firm networks and their dynamics.
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Jean-Marc Roda. Réseaux d'entreprises et stratégies industrielles dans les forêts tropicales. Géographie. Université Paris-Diderot - Paris VII, 2005. Français. ⟨tel-00011300⟩

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