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Conception assistée par modèle de systèmes de culture durables : Application aux systèmes bananiers de Guadeloupe

Abstract : Guadeloupe banana cropping systems are threatened by agronomic (low yield due to phytoparasitic nematode development), environmental (pesticide leaching to water, particularly important in a fragile insular setting) and economic (seasonal variations in fruit prices, manpower costs) unsustainability. New systems have to be designed to solve both economic and environmental problems. Rotations with other crops or fallows, biodiversity restoration, pesticide management are some current investigated solutions.

Modelling tools have been developed to combine practices, explore and optimise such systems. Banana cropping systems have some characteristics that cannot be taken into account by generic crop models; a specific model called SIMBA has been developed. The evolution of the banana population structure over time is a key point; it is simulated by SIMBA-POP, a cohort population model. Parasitism dynamics mainly due to phytoparasitic nematodes lower cropping sustainability and lead to massive use of pesticides; this is simulated by the dynamic SIMBA-NEM module. SIMBA also simulates plant growth, the soil cover and structure or water balance. Cropping practices are taken into account by decision rules that give rise to realistic technical recommendations. Qualitative, integrated and dynamic indicators are linked to biophysical modules and allow evaluation of the pesticide leaching risk, erosion risk and soil fertility. SIMBA provides agronomic (yield), environmental and economic (profit margin) outputs for multicriteria evaluation of the simulated system based on different viewpoints.

An original 2-step method has been used to prototype new cropping systems with SIMBA (first a global exploration then a specific optimisation). Some interesting cropping systems have thus been highlighted and should be tested in the field. This scientific approach permits to develop some significant progress in the banana modelling by aggregating the existing knowledge and highlight the missing ones.
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https://tel.archives-ouvertes.fr/tel-00010937
Contributor : Philippe Tixier <>
Submitted on : Thursday, November 10, 2005 - 4:07:07 PM
Last modification on : Monday, October 19, 2020 - 11:10:46 AM
Long-term archiving on: : Monday, September 20, 2010 - 1:14:30 PM

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  • HAL Id : tel-00010937, version 2

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Philippe Tixier. Conception assistée par modèle de systèmes de culture durables : Application aux systèmes bananiers de Guadeloupe. Sciences de la Terre. Ecole nationale superieure agronomique de montpellier - AGRO M, 2004. Français. ⟨tel-00010937v2⟩

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