Abstract : This thesis is devoted to the validation of the stellar data which were used for the Hipparcos Input Catalogue (INCA) and of the preliminary Hipparcos data. The first part deals with the data at our disposal, coming mainly from the INCA data base. We then describe the uvby-beta photometric calibrations we used and finally the interstellar extinction model we have built. The second part is devoted to some statistical tools, for instance how to avoid biases arising from measurement errors. These tools are used in the third part to compare the ground-based data with the preliminary data coming from the Hipparcos satellite. In particular, we develop a method allowing to obtain the external errors and the instrumental zero-point when the final parallaxes are available. Finally the last part is devoted to a kinematical study of dwarf A-type stars in the solar neighbourhood. We show that the velocities are not well mixed after two Galactic years.