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Propositions pour une adaptation de l'Analyse de Cycle de Vie aux systèmes de production agricole. Mise en œuvre pour l'évaluation environnementale de la production porcine

Abstract : This thesis addresses the reliability of the results of Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) studies applied to fanning systems. Pig production was taken as a case study. The goals of this thesis were to analyse, rank and reduce the main sources of uncertainty of LCA results. Uncertainty can be reduced by a better integration of the variability of both human and environmental systems. To this end, data on the environmental perfonnance and uncertainty (using favourable and unfavourable scenarios) of three contrasting pig production modes were produced : Good Agricultural Practice, the French Red Label and Organic Agriculture. The influence of fertilisation practises was also investigated through the assessment of a fourth over-fertilised scenario. For such average scenarios of pig production, a clear distinction was obtained for each environmental indicator, thanks to the use of specifie inventory data for the key-processes of the studied systems. The Red Label scenario was shown to be an interesting alternative to the Good Agricultural Practice scenario. For each scenario, weak points were identified as well as important margins of improvement. The uncertainty due to the impact assessment models was studied first, by analysing the basic concepts and models used in LCA for the impact categories affecting natural ecosystems (eutrophication, climate change, toxicity, acidification). Secondly, the main sources of variability for aquatic eutrophication, considered as a major impact for fanning systems, were investigated and proposals were made for improving the assessment of this impact. The implementation of these proposals with respect to the fate of nitrate in watersheds illustrated a major potential for the improvement of the assessment of aquatic eutrophication. It also revealed the sensitivity of the climate change result to these nitrate fate factors and the potential transfer of pollution from the water compartment (nitrate) to the air compartment (N20) by the denitrification process in wetlands. ln the framework of the application of LCA for average fanning systems at the regional or country scale, the ranking of uncertainty sources showed that the uncertainty due to the impact assessment models was most important. If one wishes to produce a reliable comparative LCA of real farms, the knowledge and the modelling of direct emissions on the farm site, taking account of fanner practises and environmental conditions, should be strongly improved.
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https://tel.archives-ouvertes.fr/tel-00009828
Contributor : Alain-Hervé Le Gall <>
Submitted on : Monday, July 25, 2005 - 3:49:24 PM
Last modification on : Monday, July 6, 2020 - 3:38:32 PM
Long-term archiving on: : Friday, April 2, 2010 - 9:55:31 PM

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  • HAL Id : tel-00009828, version 1
  • PRODINRA : 330887

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Claudine Basset-Mens. Propositions pour une adaptation de l'Analyse de Cycle de Vie aux systèmes de production agricole. Mise en œuvre pour l'évaluation environnementale de la production porcine. Sciences de la Terre. Agrocampus - Ecole nationale supérieure d'agronomie de renneS, 2005. Français. ⟨tel-00009828⟩

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