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Etude des transferts de produits phytosanitaires à l'échelle de la parcelle et du bassin versant viticole (Rouffach, Haut-Rhin)

Abstract : To understand surface transfers of pesticides, the catchment of Rouffach (Haut-Rhin, France) and two plots inside are equipped to quantify the fluxes of 17 active matters in continuously during approximately 6 months per year. The study also compares, at plot scale, two practical farming for the distribution of fluxes of water and associated pesticides, in infiltration and runoff (weeded chemically in a full and grassed inter-row on two with weeding on the row).The measurement instrumentation of the site is validated by identifying the possible sources of errors (uncertainty and bias) during the evaluation of the pesticide concentration. From a method of decomposition of the measurement acquisition and experiments, we evaluate bias associated with data. Certain steps can be particularly problematic for specific compounds, sensitive according to their characteristic to the processes concerned. The results achieved over the two years of monitoring (2003-2004) with opposite rainfalls enable us to emphasize the principal processes, common to the two years, implied in pesticide transfers on this type of medium. All the compounds are detected at least once in 2003 or 2004. The average concentrations of the majority of the pesticides are strong after the first episodes according to application. But the pluviometric factors (intensity and volume) can make increase strongly the concentrations even several months after the application if the molecules are still mobilizable by runoff. The majority of the compounds are also detected during events with runoff on the impermeable zones, without plot runoff. The unfavourable factors mainly explaining the strong concentrations measured for some pesticides would be an input generalized in time and space and/or properties supporting a durable availability in the zone of interface soil-runoff. We finally validated, by using a simplified hydrological model, the assumption that the response time of the pesticide can be influenced, after the first major event, by the space distribution of the compound input(s) in a prevalent way and, for the following events, by the space distribution plus the pesticide state (desorption/degradation) moving in time according to its characteristics. The total fluxes exported with runoff at catchment outlet spread from 0 to 0,62 % of the applied quantity. The critical events from their hydrological characteristics (intensity, duration) and their situation with respect to the inputs constitute the main part of the exported quantities. The comprehension of pesticides behaviour enables us to propose solutions to limit pesticides transfers at catchment scale.
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https://tel.archives-ouvertes.fr/tel-00009793
Contributor : Nicolas Domange <>
Submitted on : Thursday, July 21, 2005 - 2:07:17 PM
Last modification on : Thursday, April 23, 2020 - 2:26:30 PM
Long-term archiving on: : Friday, April 2, 2010 - 9:38:54 PM

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  • HAL Id : tel-00009793, version 1

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Nicolas Domange. Etude des transferts de produits phytosanitaires à l'échelle de la parcelle et du bassin versant viticole (Rouffach, Haut-Rhin). Dynamique des Fluides [physics.flu-dyn]. Université Louis Pasteur - Strasbourg I, 2005. Français. ⟨tel-00009793⟩

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